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National Sugar Crops Research, SARC, Thatta

PARC Compound, Jungshahi Road, Makli, Thatta, SindhPakistan.


Pakistan Agricultural Research Council established Southern Zone Agricultural Research Centre on the left bank of river Indus at Sujawal in 1982, with the objectives:

  • Introduction of Coastal fruit plants

  • Research on Sugarcane

The centre was converted to Southern Zone Agricultural Research Institute during 1986 and during 1988 due to breach in river Indus, the institute came under flood and most of the infrastructures were damaged, finally it was shifted to its present location at Makli, Thatta during 1990.

The National Sugar Crops Research Institute (NSCRI) was initially a development project funded by PARC through PSDP, government of Pakistan during 1995 for the period of three years. This development project continued till 2003 due to late releases and savings. The project on completion was converted to a regular institute of PARC on 1-07-2003. The institute is located on Jungshahi road at Makli beside the historic Makli graveyard. The compound comprises office buildings, laboratories and residential buildings on 4 acres of land which was purchased from government of Sindh. The institute owns 60 acre agricultural land used for sugarcane breeding research at deh kalakot on Thatta-Ghorabari road, almost 14 km from the main office. 

Main Objectives of institute

  • To develop sugarcane varieties with high sugar yield for different agro-ecological zones of the country,

  • To develop sugarcane varieties for stress conditions such as pests, drought, salinity, frost and high temperature,

  • To develop agronomic requirements for the new varieties developed at the Institute,

  • To produce basic seed of new varieties in collaboration with progressive farmers,

  • To develop linkage between National and International Institutes for the exchange of scientific information, visits of scientists and training of manpower.

Main Disciplines of Research / Sections within Institute

  • Sugarcane Breeding,

  • Sugarcane Agronomy,

  • Sugarcane Nutrition

  • Sugarcane Pathology,

  • Sugarcane Entomology,

  • Sugarcane Bio-Technology,

Varietal Development Process

The institute has been working on development of new sugarcane varieties through local and exotic fuzz since 1989-90. Every year large number of seedlings is produced from local and exotic fuzz. These seedlings are shifted to main field and year wise tested in following selection stages. 

Table-1.Stages for sugarcane variety development at NSCRI, Thatta

Selection year

Selection stage

Year 1

Sowing of fuzz/ maintenance of nursery 

Year 1

Transplantation and testing in single clone trial

Year 2

First cycle

Year 3

Second cycle

Year 4

Third cycle

Year 5

Fourth cycle

Year 6

Preliminary yield trial

Year 7

Advance varietal trial

Year 8

National Uniform Varietal Yield Trial and Zonal varietal testing trials

Year 9

Agronomic trials and seed increase.

Number of clones in each selection stage is reduced by rejecting undesirable clones and promoted to next selection stage for further evaluation and selection. In third cycle the variety name is allotted to each clone. The potential genotypes are further tested in preliminary and advance varietal trials. The cane and sugar yield potential of such selected genotypes is also tested at different agro-ecological zones of Sindh. 

1. Maintenance of sugarcane germplasm and flowering studies (Collection, drying and storage of fuzz)
Sugarcane germplasm is maintained by simple vegetative propagation method. There are 590 varieties/lines of sugarcane, which were maintained at NSCRI, PARC Farm Thatta during 2010-11 for flowering studies. Out of 590 sugarcane varieties/lines a total of 28 sugarcane lines/ varieties flowered up to 31-12-2011. fuzz was collected from the same varieties. Additional 5.75 kg local fuzz of different sugarcane varieties i.e. Triton, MT/76-2 CPF-240 and Sheedi was also collected from the adjoining areas of Thatta viz., Ghora Bari, Garho, Khalifa and Makli area etc.. Fuzz collection activity will be continued up to March 2012.

Sugarcane flowering at Thatta

2. Sugarcane crossing blocks for poly-cross fuzz production.

During 2010-11 thirty eight selected sugarcane varieties were planted at Chaudhery Shabir farm Khalifa Taluka Garho district Thatta for poly cross under field conditions.

3. Nursery development:

During 2010-11, local fuzz of ten different sugarcane varieties was sown on coarse textured soil raised beds. The small plots of 2X2 ft size were prepared on 9-12 inches elevated beds. Fuzz was spread as evenly as possible in the plots and covered with slight layer of sand. In order to keep the soil moist, frequent irrigations with sprinkler were applied. Plant protection measures and applications of NPK fertilizers were also made as per need. A total of 2500 seedling clones were germinated. Out of which, total 1013 seedling clones were transplanted to the main field in single clone trial for further evaluation and selection.

 Nursery development from sugarcane fuzz, at NSCRI

Nursery maintained as single plant in polythene bags

4. Evaluation and maintenance of single clone trial.

During 2010-11 a total of 2500 seedling clones obtained from nursery and were transplanted to the main field in single clone trial. The clones were planted as a single clone/hill at 3 feet plant to plant space on 9-12 inches elevated ridges spaced at one meter apart. All of 1013 single clones were advanced to first cycle for further evaluation and selection.

5. Evaluation and selection of sugarcane clones in 1st cycle.

During 2010-11 a total of 560 clones were maintained and evaluated in 1st cycle. The clones were planted in non-replicated five meters long single rows spaced at one meter apart. Out of the entire clones tested, a total of 92 were advanced to second cycle for further evaluation and selection.

6. Evaluation and selection of sugarcane clones in 2nd cycle.

During 2010-11 a total of 314 sugarcane clones were maintained and evaluated in 2nd cycle. The clones were planted in a non- replicated trial, consisted of two meters long double rows, spaced at one-meter apart. Out of which a total of 50 sugarcane clones were advanced to 3rd cycle for further evaluation and selection. The selection of the clones was made on the basis of better vigorous growth appearance, better cane thickness, brix%, resistance to insect pest and disease attack. The clones were rejected due to very poor growth and thinner canes, insect pest and disease attack and some other undesirable characters such as lodging, pithiness, sprouting and aerial roots etc.

7. Evaluation and selection of sugarcane clones in 3rd cycle.

During 2010-11a total of 72 sugarcane clones were maintained in 3rd cycle. Each line/clone was replicated three times. Six meters long two rows at one-meter row space were maintained in each treatment. The clones were screened against check variety Thatta-10. Out of 72, only 7 clones viz. Th-1101, Th-1102, Th-1103, Th-1133, Th-1156, Th-1166 and Th-1170 were shifted to 4th cycle for further evaluation and progression.

8. Evaluation and selection of sugarcane genotypes in 4th cycle

During 2010-11, a total of 29 clones were evaluated and tested in 4th cycle. The clones were planted in five meters long three rows spaced at one meter apart. Each clone was replicated two times. Out of the total clones tested only eight clones viz. Th-1013, Th-1058, QTh-1112, QTh-1008, QTh-1009, QTh-1031, QTh-1029 and QTh-1049 were advanced to Preliminary yield trial for further evaluation and selection. Selection of the clones was made on the basis of qualitative and quantitative characters. The remaining 21 clones were rejected on the basis of poor performance.

9. Evaluation and selection of different sugarcane genotypes in preliminary yield trial.

During 2010-11 due to avoid of being damaged by flood water at NSCRI, Thatta experimental farm, the material of eight different promising sugarcane lines viz. Th-962, Th-9121, Th-9211, Th-9126, Th-911, Th-931, Th-986 and Th-920 selected from 4th cycle (2009-10) along with Thatta-10 as check was shifted to Qadir Bux Jamali, farm Thatta.for further evaluation and selection. The data on cane yield, yield parameters and CCS% were collected. The genotypes Th-962, Th-920 and Th-9121exhibited better performance in terms of average cane yield and yield parameters. While, in case of commercial cane sugar percentage, the genotypes Th-9121, Th-911 and Th-962 produced better results as compared to check variety Thatta-10.

10. Evaluation and selection of sugarcane genotypes in advance varietal trial.

During 2010-11, performance of four promising sugarcane genotypes viz.BPTh-804, BPTh-806, BPTh-816 and BPTh-827 along with Thatta-10 variety as local check was tested in advance varietal trial at NSCRI, farm Thatta. The experiment was laid out under RCBD with three replications. Each treatment had six meters long three rows at one-meter row space. Required agronomic, insect pest and disease control measures were followed throughout the growing season. At maturity of crop, the data on cane yield, yield parameters and CCS5 were recorded. The data showed that none of the genotypes could surpass the check variety Thatta-10 in terms of average cane yield. However, the genotypes BPTh-804, BPTh-806 and BPTh-827 exhibited almost matching performance for average cane yield with check variety. In case of commercial cane sugar percentage, the check variety Thatta-10 maintained its superiority over all the genotypes, while, the genotypes BPTH-804, BPTh-816, BPTh-827 and BPTh-806 exhibited better performance in terms of CCS%. 

11. Performance of different sugarcane varieties in National Uniform Varietal Yield Trial at NSCRI, Thatta. 
The two best promising lines/varieties Th-508 and Th-550 of NSCRI, Thatta selected from Advance Varietal trial, four lines/varieties i.e. S-2006-US-18, S-2006-SP-30, S-2006-US-641 and S-2006-US-658 from S.R.I. Faisalabad and five lines/varieties i.e. S-2003-CPSG-1042, S-2003-CPSG-437, S-2003-HoSG-1257, S-2004-CPSG-2923 and S-2004-CPSG-2875, from ShakerGanj Sugarcane Research Institute Jhang were planted for further evaluation and testing. The data on cane yield, yield parameters and CCS% were taken. All the sugarcane lines/varieties performed better in terms of average cane yield, yield parameters and CCS%

12. Performance of different sugarcane varieties in National Uniform Varietal Yield Trial 2nd fresh Crop at NSCRI, Thatta during 2010-2011 
The three best selected promising lines HoTh-514, HoTh-544 and HoTh-547 of NSCRI, Thatta along with two lines i.e. S-2003-US-165 and S-2003-US-778 from S.R.I. Faisalabad, four i.e. S-2003-CPSG-1607, S-2003-HoSG-129, S-2003-HoSG-315, S-2003-CPSG-3453 and S-2003-CPSG-3481 from Shaker Ganj Sugarcane Research Institute Jhang and one LAM- 76 from S.R.C. Tandojam were planted for further evaluation and testing. The performance of all sugarcane lines/varieties remained satisfactroy for cane yield and quality.

13. Seed increase of NUVYT varieties:

The seed of promising line Th-719 of NSCRI, Thatta along with three lines i.e. S-2006-US-469, S-2006-US-54 and S-2006-US-272 from S.R.I. Faisalabad and three lines i.e. S-2004-CPSG-239, S-2004-CPSG-212 and S-2004-CPSG-291 from Shakar Ganj Sugarcane Research Institute Jhang were planted for further evaluation and testing.

Two Chinese varieties; BPTh-804 and YTTh-55 were selected for seed increase to be included in National Uniform Varietal Trial (NUVYT) 2011- 2014. Seed of said lines was also provided to the S.R.I. Faisalabad, Shakar Ganj Sugarcane Research Institute Jhang and National Coordinator; Sugarcane NARC, Islamabad for seed multiplication and evaluation.

14. Evaluation of Chinese Sugarcane Varieties

(a) NSCRI experimental farm and Office premises:

During 2010 Chinese varieties; Roc-1, YT-53, YT-55 and YT-236 from Guangzhou Agricultural Research Institute, China under Pak China Cooperation project on agriculture were imported. YT-55 and RoC-1 exhibited better performance and produced maximum cane thickness, plant height and weight. While YT-53 and YT-236 showed satisfactory performance for yield characters. In case of commercial cane sugar percentage (CCS%) the variety YT-53 remained on top followed by YT-55, YT-236 and RoC-1. The seed has been replanted at different locations for multiplication and evaluation.

 Chinese varieties evaluation and seed increase shifting to the field sugarcane fuzz, at NSCRI

(b) Evaluation at NSCRI, Experimental farm Thatta.

During 2011 the seed of the Chinese varieties was further multiplied at NSCRI experimental farm. The germination was satisfactory, but at later stage the growth was stunted due to heavy rains and salinity and did not show satisfactory performance in terms of yield and related parameters. The varieties are further planted for multiplication and evaluation.

(c) Evaluation at Qadir Bux Jamali Farm Thatta.

During 2010-11 the Chinese varieties; YT-53, YT-55, YT-236, ROC-1, ROC-16, ROC-20 and ROC-22 were planted at Qadir Bux Jamali Agricultural farm Jhirk site, district Thatta. The data showed that variety YT-55 remained on top with better average cane yield followed by check variety Thatta-10 and YT-53. While ROC-16 and ROC-20 produced minimum average cane yield against the check variety Thatta-10. In case of commercial cane sugar percentage the variety YT-53 produced better CCS% followed by YT-236 and YT-53. While the variety ROC-1 showed minimum CCS%. The seed will be further multiplied and ratoon crop will also be maintained.

The variety YT-55 has been selected for National Uniform Varietal Yield Trials for further evaluation.  

15. Seed multiplication of NSCRI, developed promising sugarcane varieties in Sindh.

The evaluation of NSCRI developed sugarcane varieties for zonal studies at different locations of Sindh is also a source of seed multiplication. Based on the performance at farmers’ field, the seed of these varieties is multiplied. Continuous follow up of the varieties, close interaction with the growers and Sugar Mill’s cane department individuals is being made to draw out cane yield and sugar recovery potential of the same varieties.

16. Evaluation of Multifunctional Plastic Film:

Evaluation of plastic film technology at farmer’s field

Multifunctional plastic film technology is used on large scale on sugarcane in china for moisture preservation during dry season and germination improvement in winter plantations. The evaluation of multifunctional plastic film imported from China was tried at different locations for moisture preservation and better germination in sugarcane during winter. The application of plastic film after planting of sugarcane increased soil temperature by 4 ⁰C which help sugarcane germination in late autumn plantations, as temperatures during November-December remain low thus sugarcane germination remains poor. In lower Sindh after the harvest of paddy, sugarcane cannot be planted due to shortage of irrigation water and cold weather during November and onward. Even if irrigation water is available the sugarcane is not planted due to low temperatures which significantly reduce sugarcane germination. The research on the performance evaluation of plastic film is ongoing and efforts are being made to formulate this film from local market, which will help conduct experimentation on large scale sugarcane plantations and demonstrations. This technology is expected to bring more acreage of late autumn sugarcane plantations (cold weather) under cultivation with residual moisture of paddy fields and shortage of available irrigation water.

17. Tissue culture work

The improvement in tissue culture work was brought by optimizing the tissue culture protocols for banana and sugarcane plants, hardening of plants was done in nethouse, laboratory conditions were improved, efforts were made for acquisition of new equipment and training of supporting staff was done. All the procedures i.e. establishment, shooting, rooting, hardening and transfer to field was done at NSCRI. The laboratory is now and independent and its staff can perform all tissue procedures at NSCRI. The details of the progress of the work are given below:

(i)Banana tissue culture

Protocols for banana and sugarcane shooting and rooting and hardening were established. Four varieties of banana were used for the culture i.e. one local (Bombay) and three Chinese (B-10, W-11 and Pisang).

(a) Shooting
Explants were grown on standard MS medium containing vitamins and hormones. The plants were grown under cool white fluorescent light at 25-26 C.For induction of shoots in banana, various concentrations of BAP were tested. Three (3) mg/L of BAP was found optimum for proliferation of the shoots (Fig. 1). More than 4500 shoots were produced in this way but most them could not survive due severe contamination and delay in medium change due to malfunctioning of laboratory equipment from time to time. As mentioned above, the conditions of the laboratory are being improved.

Figure 1. Shoots of banana plants (Each jar contains several shoots).

(b) Rooting

For banana rooting, several concentrations of IAA were tested and 2 mg/L IAA was found optimum for induction of root in banana. 

Figure 2. Rooting in banana.

(c) Hardening of banana
Tissue cultured plants are grown under artificial conditions in the laboratory, therefore, they need to be acclimatized before they are shifted to the field. Banana plantlets were grown in plastic bags containing about half kg of sand and supplied with full nutrient solution. The plants were then shifted to the field (Fig. 3., 4., 5.). Plants with better roots survived better during hardening in the greenhouse. 

Figure 3. Harden banana plants.

Figure 4. Banana plantlet being planted in the field at Baghar Mori, Thatta.

Figure 5. Banana plants after transplanting in the field.

(ii) Sugarcane tissue culture

Several Chinese as well as local sugarcane varieties were optimized for hormone concentration and laboratory conditions. Shooting response of HoTh-300, Hoth-409 and YT-236, YT-5, YT-55, Roc-1 for kinetin was optimum in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L and rooting was best at 2 mg IBA/L.

Figure 3. Induction of shoots in sugarcane.

Figure 6. Root induction in sugarcane.

(iii) Banana field multiplication

After hardening, plants were shifted to the field at Baghar Mori near Thatta. The plants survived the field shock and are very well (Fig. 3). Plants shifted in March 2011 are in fruiting (Fig. 4). At present plants are being grown for multiplication purpose and in spring 2012 a comparative study will be initiated to compare various cultivars for yield as well as quality potential. 

Figure 3. Banana plants (B-10) growing in the field at Baghar Mori near Thatta.

Figure 4. Plants in fruiting.

(iv) Improvement of Tissue Culture Laboratory Conditions

A tissue culture laboratory was established at NSCRI, Thatta in June 2010. Although the laboratory provided basic tissue culture facility, it lacked (due to budget constraint) proper sanitation in washing, transfer, growth and media preparation rooms. The result was severe contamination by fungi and bacteria in plant cultures, especially in monsoon season and four months following it. The primary cause of the contamination was dust particles suspended in the atmosphere and high humidity during above period. There was dire need of modification in laboratory space and building. This problem is being addressed during rehabilitation work initiated at NSCRI funded by RADP. Aluminium-glass partitions were erected in culture and growth rooms. Now there are three growth rooms of 12x10 feet dimensions instead of one. This has increased the capacity of the growth room four times and will provide better sanitation conditions. Similarly, media preparation room is being modified and sealed properly. The laboratory lacked water storage facility. 

18. Soil and water analysis laboratory:

(i) Analysis of soil and water samples in laboratory of soil science at NSCRI, Thatta.

  • 20 composite soil samples from NSCRI, Thatta farm, Alamgir Farm district Thatta and Latif Farm Tando Jam at two successive depths 0-15 and 15-30 cm were taken. Samples collected were dried, sieved passed through 2 mm sieve and preserved in the plastic bags. The result showed that most soil samples of all locations were clayey in texture, moderately in saline conditions and pH ranges from 7.96 to 8.20. Organic matter was also analyzed and samples were low in organic matter.

  • Underground water samples were collected from NSCRI farm and other areas of district Thatta which were brought by the farmers were analyzed for EC and pH. The EC and pH were ranged from 2.5-6.8 and 7.8-8.15 respectively.

  • Efforts are underway to strengthen the laboratory. Chemicals and equipment is being purchased under micronutrient and RADP funding. This will enhance analytical capability of the laboratory. The soil scientists working in laboratory will trained at NSCRI to carry out analytical procedures during 2012.

19. Research experiments under project “Sustaining the productivity of rice based cropping system through new interventions in Punjab and Sindh provinces”. 

(a) Aerobic rice through dry drilling

In total five rice varieties; KS-133, Shandar, Shua-92, IR-72 and local Red Rice were tested through dry drilling as Aerobic Rice during 2011 at fourteen locations of Thatta district. The seed of all varieties was soaked for 12 hours and dry drilled at Wattar conditions. Two bags of Zarkhez fertilizer were applied before drilling of rice and three bags of Urea fertilizer were applied in two splits, The first split of Nitrogen was applied after 40 days of drilling during first irrigation and 2nd at the flowering stage of the crop .In addition one bag of Zingro acre-1 was also applied to the crop during 1st irrigation. The spray of Ryzellon+ Star Gold herbicide was done to eradicate the weed population to avoid the weed competition.

Dry drilling of Rice at Farmers’ field

The first irrigation was applied after almost 40 days of drilling. The crop was harvested at maturity. The agronomic data viz: Plant Heigt (cm),Tillers Hill-1,Tillers m 2,panical length( cm), No: of seeds panical-1,100 seed weight (g) and Paddy yield T h-1 was recorded.

The maximum paddy yield at harvest ( 8.53 t ha-1 ) was recorded with variety KS-133 at M.Usman Khaskheli, Bello location, followed by (7.02 t ha-1) from the same variety at Ali Nawaz Brohi,purani Kotri location, while the minimum paddy yield (3.18 t ha-1) was noted at location Mama Qadri Soomro near chato-chand from the rice variety Shandar.

Alternate Wet and Dry (AWD) technique:

Water saving being a major issue and activity of rice project was also addressed through AWD technique. 20 farmers’ fields were selected for demonstration, monitoring and technical input regarding water saving. The farmers were asked to keep their fields flooded in beginning. After 35 days of transplanting the farmers were asked to apply thin layer of irrigation water when the fields are dry and continue this practice till harvest. Through this technique 20 to 30% water was saved without compromising on yield.


(b) Salt tolerance Trial

In addition to Dry drilling a set of eight Rice varieties namely IR 84678-25-5-B, IR 84675-7-3-2-BB, IR84677-34-1-B, IR84677-51-1-B, IR 04L 191, IR 05 F 101,and (IR-6 & KS 133 Check) were planted at National Sugar crops Research Institute Thatta. Rice Nursery was planted through broadcasting method on well prepared beds at NSCRI farm. 25 days old seedlings were transplanted to the field to evaluate the potential of different Rice verities against salt tolerance. All the agronomic practices was done accordingly when it is required. The agronomic data was recorded viz: Plant Heigt (cm), Tillers Hill-1, Tillers m 2,panical length( cm), No:of seeds panical-1,100 seed weight (g) and Paddy yield T h-1 .

According to the recorded results the paddy yield of all the tested rice varieties were remain below the check varieties( IR-6 and KS-33). 

Technology Developed/ Achievements:

National Sugar Crops Research Institute, Thatta over years of research have developed many new sugarcane varieties. The variety Thatta-10 (developed from local fuzz of L-113 commercial sugarcane variety) has been approved by Government of Sindh and is being cultivated on almost 25 percent area in Sindh.

Proposal of Thatta-300 sugarcane variety (developed through exotic fuzz from Houma) has been submitted to Variety Evaluation Committee (VEC) PARC, Islamabad. The proposal for Thatta-127 has also been prepared and will be submitted to VEC.

Moreover, seven more promising sugarcane varieties viz. HoTh-2109, HoTh-311, HoTh-318, HoTh-326, HoTh-344, HoTh-348 and HoTh-409 have been registered with Federal Seed Certification Department, Government of Pakistan.

Varieties from China viz. ROC-01, ROC-16, ROC-20, ROC-22, YT-53, YT-55 and YT-236 are under testing and evaluation. The varieties having potential of producing good cane and sugar yield as well as resistant to insect pest and diseases will be selected for commercial cultivation.

Multi functional Plastic Mulching Technology under Pak China Cooperation Project on Sugarcane is also under experimentation. The research cum demonstration trials are being conducted on different farmers fields and Sugar Mills farms. This technology will be used for late autumn planting in sugarcane.





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