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INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

ACHIEVEMENTS

Establishment of Insectary-Biological Control Labs: a tool for research and development

Challenge

• Farmers are currently using too many toxic chemicals and applying them too frequently to control the pests.This excessive pesticide usage threatens the health of farmers and consumers and the meantime, the insect is becoming tolerant to the chemicals, making it more difficult to control.

• Chemical sprays also kill natural enemies of the pest and disturb the ecosystem. The use of insecticide also results in increase in the price of product.

• One of the safest ways to manage the insect pests is the use of bio-control agents. Biological control consists of conservation, augmentation and importation of Biological based Technologies. The last two steps require rearing of bio-control agents.

• The efficient and economical rearing of quality bio-control agents can only be achieved when they have best environment for their production. The only best way to do this is in the control habitat; and this can only be obtained in an Insectary building.

• Capacity building of scientists and endusers is another requirement for rearing of insect bio control agents and their hosts.

 

Interventions

• In 2008, an insectary building was planned through a project . “Development and Improvement of Mass Production Techniques of insect Bio-control Agents” funded by Research for Agricultural Development Program (RADP), Pakistan Agricultural Research Council

• Different experiments are being conducted to for exploring mass rearing techniques of economically important parastiods (Trichogramma and Aphidius) and predators (Chrysoperla and Coccinellid) of insect pests of crops and vegetables.

 

Outcome

• The insectary building was completed in 2010.

• Efficient and economical rearing of quality bio-control agents on various factitious and natural hosts of two parastiods (i.e. Trichogramma and Aphidius) and two predators (i.e. Chrysoperla and Coccinellid) were established.

• Seventy five students in rearing techniques of insect bio-control agents and their hosts.

 

Way Forward

• Field application of parasitoid and predators are needed to evaluate their effectiveness.

 

 


Contributor

 

IPMP, NARC

 
Biological Control of Sugar Cane Borers by Trichogramma chilonis Application in Pakistan

Challenge

• Sugarcane is an important cash crop of Pakistan. It is damaged by a number of insects. Sugar cane borers (stem borer, top borer, gurdaspur borer and root borers) are the serious pests of sugarcane crop throughout Pakistan

• Each sugar mill provides granular insecticides of worth approx. 50-70 million rupees to farmers to control these insect pests. These insecticides have not only adverse affect on environment and human health but also result in development of resistance in insects and increase the cost of products

• Sugarcane borers have a complex of natural enemies. However, Trichogramma spp. (egg parasitoids) kills the young ones of the lepidopterous pests before their development in the eggs. The main challenge was to develop an economical mass rearing technique of Trichogramma spp. and its transfer to end users

 

Interventions

• From 2001 to 2002, IPMP started work to develop the rearing technique of Trichogramma spp. Different experiments were conducted for developing mass production technology of Trichogramma spp. on factitious insect hosts

• Since 2003, the mass production technology of Trichogramma spp. and their factitious host insect (Sitotroga spp.) is being demonstrated to different sugar mills and government institutions

• Since 2003, developed technology is being transferred to other end-users through capacity building

 

Outcome

• The technology consists of mass rearing chamber of Sitotroga (Host of Trichogramma). When sufficient host insects/eggs are available daily then rearing of Trichogramma is initiated. The parasitized eggs are pasted on ivory cards. These cards are ready for release in the field

• This technology was transferred to twelve (12) sugar industries. Now the sugar mills are providing bio-control agents to farmers instead of granular insecticides. Biological control is being applied on 20,000-25,000 acres around each sugar mill having biological control laboratory

• More than 40 laboratory technicians of sugar industry

 

Way Forward

• Commercialization of Trichogramma egg parasitoid for using against other major lepidopterous pests of crops

• Dissemination of this technology to other sugar mills

 

Contributors

Dr. Ehsan-ul-Haq

and IPMP scientists

 

   

Assessment of rice stem borers outbreak in adopting zero-tillage technology in rice-wheat system

 

 

Challenge

• In Pakistan rice crop is attacked by five species of Rice stem borer(RSB) of which Scirpophoga incectulus and S. innotata cause more severe losses. These borers overwinter in rice stubbles and attack the subsequent rice crop

• With the passage of time, various new developments and innovations have been introduced in the rice wheat system to improve the productivity of both the crops. Recent development is the introduction of zero-tillage technology for timely sowing of wheat after rice.

• An associated problem with this technology was assumed that with the adoption of zero tillage, stubbles will remain intact and will be responsible for the increased survival of RSB, especially yellow stem borer (S. incertulas) and white stem borer (S. innotata), which will inflict heavy losses to subsequent rice crop.

 

Interventions

• In 1987-89 wheat was planted in rice stubbles (zero tillage), using an imported drill from New Zealand, as well as with conventional tillage at 13 different locations in Gujrat, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Sheikhupura districts by Wheat Research Program of NARC, Islamabad.

• To determine the density of live and dead larvae and pupae of RSB, all the rice stubbles and residues in one square meter area were collected, once in a month in 1988 and 20 days interval in 1989 from February to May and about 0.5 million tillers were dissected. Number of infected tillers, live and dead larvae and pupae in each sample were counted.

• During both the years samples of rice stubbles were also collected from fallow, fallow-ploughed, berseem and chickpea fields.

 

Outcome

• The results of the studies showed that the mortality rate of stem borers in zero-tillage and conventional tillage systems was similar and major overwintering sites were rice stubbles in rice-berseem-rice and rice-fallow-rice fields.

• It was concluded that rice stubbles in wheat fields sown with zero-tillage are not a major threat for the subsequent rice crop.

 

Way Forward

There is a need to develop IPM of Rice stem borers to minimize the loss in future.

 

 

 

 

Contributors
IPMP, NARC

 

   

Leaf curl virus (CLCV): a menace to cotton production

Challenge

• Cotton is an important cash crop which contributes significantly to national Among the other pests, Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV), a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus is one of the serious threats to cotton production in Pakistan. It was considered a minor disease until 1987.

• It spread on a sizeable area in 1988 in Khanewal district and cover almost 150 acres during 1989. Since then it has been on expansion. It infested 35000 acres in 1991-92 and 294000 acres during 1992-93 causing huge production and monetary loss to the nation.

• During 1990-92 CLCV caused a loss of 5-8% in number of bolls, and 25-30% in the boll weight and yield losses has been estimated at 30-35% .

• The main challenge was to prove that activity of vector(s) (whitefly etc.) can play an effective part in its outbreak.

 

Interventions

• Considering the importance of cotton crop and the damage this disease has caused the Government of Pakistan urged all the concerned provincial as well as federal agencies to take up immediate necessary steps for investigating the identification, etiology, distribution, incidence and vector of this disease so as to effectively subdue this upcoming menace hitting the national economy.

• In the beginning the researchers, extension workers having different assumptions, that disease may have been introduced in Pakistan, multiplied by different practices like irrigation etc. There was no empirical evidence of the disease transmission or characteristics.

• IPMP scientists were assigned the role of re-confirmation/ identification of vectors of CLCV and assisting the scientists in locating the possible vector. IPMP scientists conducted surveys, field trials and laboratory experiments to investigate and develop the strategies to manage this disease.

 

Outcome

• Empirical evidence of whitefly as a vector of CLCV was produced, as whitefly could transmit this virus from cotton to cotton and cotton to cowpea, french beans, okra, tomato, tobacco, and soybean; but no transmission to sunflower.Results revealed that cotton crop covered in cages was healthy and boll formation was of optimum size and free from CLCV compared to un-caged plants.

• Furthermore, it was confirmed that a single specimen of whitefly could successfully transmit CLCL from cotton to cotton. Thus as a vector of this disease even one whitefly per plant can become a menace. This puts the ‘Economic Threshold Level’ concept at cross-roads.

• It was confirmed that inoculums of disease is in abundance throughout the year and activity of vector(s) (whitefly etc.) can play an effective part in its outbreak.

 

Way Forward

Screening of cotton germplasm against CLCV and its management is needed.

 

 

 

Contributors

IPMP, NARC

CDRI, NARC

 

   
Addressing Helicoverpa armigera, a threat to Sunflower adoption in Cotton-Sunflower Rotation

Challenge

• National Oilseed Development Project (NODP) was initiated by the GOP with the prime objective of increasing oil seed crops production through research in the country to minimize foreign exchange bill on import of edible oils.

• The provisional units of NODP studies the feasibility study, the cotton agro-ecosystem was found the most suitable for the replacement of late wheat with sunflower and also cultivation of sunflower in the lands where growers leave the land fallow after cotton.

• Government of Pakistan wanted to promote cultivation of sunflower in rotation with cotton. There was hue and cry that this rotation has intensified the occurrence of Helicoverpa on cotton.

• Some extension workers apprehended that introduction of sunflower in rotation with cotton will intensify the attack of Helicoverpa armigra on cotton, as it is perhaps serving as a host plant of this pest.

 

Interventions

• In 1991, the scientists of Entomological Research Laboraties, NARC in collaboration with the scientists of NODP started survey of selected cotton agro-ecosystem during summer to estimate the factual position for developing a future strategy to counter Helicoverpa infestation and preserve cotton agro-ecosystem.

• Three surveys covering 107 locations in the cotton growing (Sahiwal, Multan, Khanewal, Vehari, Kabirwala, Jahanian, Sadiqabad, Rahimyarkhan, Bahawalpur, Burewala etc.) were made.

 

Outcome

• Based upon the data collected during three surveys, it was concluded that Sunflower being one of the host of Helicoverpa has no significant impact in offsetting the established population of this insect pest in cotton agro-ecosystem.

• This outcome leads to promote the sunflower cultivation in the cotton growing areas of Punjab.

 

Way Forward

There is a need to develop IPM model for Helicoverpa armigra.

 

 

Contributors
IPMP, NARC.
NODP, Pakistan

 

Host plant resistance in cereal crops against aphid species

Challenge

• Cereal crops account for over fifty per cent of human energy and protein needs. They occupy two-thirds of all cultivated land and are the staple food for many human societies.

• The reduction in yield of cereal crops may be due to the influence of some biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic factors include insects, diseases, weeds, vertebrate pests and birds.

• A number of aphid species attack cereal crops and cause damage by: (i) extraction of plant sap, (ii) injection of toxic secretions while feeding, and (iii) transmission of viral diseases. Of these, grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), and Sitohion miscanthi (Takahashi), bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), rose-grain aphid, Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), and greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) are the most serious.

• Direct crop yield reductions due to aphids may range from 10-50% and indirect 20-80%, 19-31% at the boot stage and 14-20% during the anthesis stage of plant growth.

Interventions

• Since 1990, the varieties/lines under NYT are infested with aphids species and their tolerance level was evaluated.

• The screening process included the following number of lines/varieties/germplasm of differ cereal crops; wheat (2357), barley (374), sorghum (622), millet (347), maize (147), rice (469) and oats (66) for evaluation of resistance against major aphid species.

Outcome

• Following number of lines/varieties were found resistant against aphid species; wheat (211), barley (38), sorghum (35), millet (42), oats (6) and rice (24).

• These results have been communicated to respective programs for inclusion in their future breeding work.

Way Forward

Continuation of this work and transfer of this information to cereal breeders is needed.

 

 

Contributors
IPMP, NARC
Wheat Programme,NARC
National Breeders
ABGRI, NARC

Neem seed formulation at farm level

Challenge

• Farmers are currently using too many toxic chemicals and applying them too frequently to control the pests.

• This excessive pesticide usage threatens the health of farmers and consumers and the meantime, the insect is becoming tolerant to the chemicals, making it more difficult to control. Chemical sprays also kill natural enemies of the pest and disturb the ecosystem.The use of insecticide also results in increase in the price of product.

• Adopting environment friendly methods to keep the damage below injury level is the only answer to these problems.

Interventions

• Bio-pesticides provide an alternate to synthetic pesticide because of generally low environmental pollution, low toxicity to human and other advantages is that it can be used in combination with natural enemies.

• The work was initiated in 2005 and neem water extracts was tested against insect pests. Neem oil is extracted by crushing the neem seed in an electric expeller.

• Fine neem seed grinded and sieving through 60 mesh sieve. The powder is kept in cotton bag along with 1% detergent (soap, surf or any liquid detergent) and soaked in hot water (80°C) for 16-20 hours. The extract thus obtained is diluted to prepare 2% water solution based on the weight of the powder. The solution should be prepared fresh for each treatment and should be used within 12-24 hours after preparation.

Outcome

• In five case studies on cotton in Khairpur the efficacy of the neem formulations has been at par with insecticides such as Methamidophos, Thiodon, Deltaphos, Karate and Talstar. Neem-based pesticides are now globally known as effective and environment friendly pest control materials.

Way Forward

More studies on field application of neem water extract on vegetable crops are needed.

 

 

Contributors
IPMP, NARC

 

Control of Mango midges by non-pesticides measures in Pakistan

 

Challenge

• Mango is a major fruit crop of Pakistan. The low yield is due to diseases and insect pests which cause huge losses due to poor quality of plant protection measures.

• During the last two years of the project observation in Multan, R.Y. Khan has indicated mango midges infestation in about 50% panicles of inflorescence.

• Currently 2-3 sprays of insecticides are being applied to mango inflorescences for the control of mango midges. These sprays are in addition to those applied against mealy bug, scales and midges etc.

• This increased application of insecticide has resulted in the development of resistance and elimination of natural enemies of minor and major pests.

• These pests remained unimportant or minor and therefore, were not given due attention until 2004 when farmers reported damage to mango inflorescence causing its extensive drop leading to huge fruit yield losses.

Intervention

• IPMP initiated an ALP project with different coordinating units. The project started in 2007 and was completed in three years.

• The main aim of the project was to develop integrated pest management of mango midges:

 By application of neem extract (2%), mango plant alone or in combination with soil hoeing under the canopy.

 Data on population sampling of midge’s larvae, number of adult caught in sticky traps/m2in mango growing area of Punjab.

Outcome

• Application of neem seed extract (2%) to mango plant at 12 days interval along with soil hoeing under the plant canopy in the month of March provided more than 80 percent control of mango midges.

Way Forward

Work on identification of pest specific parasitoids and it inundative field application is needed.

 

 

Contributors

IPMP, NARC

Coordinating units

 

 

 

Management of Gurdaspur Borer in Sugarcane in Mandi Bahuudin, Punjab

 

Challenge 
• Gurdaspur borer is an important pest of sugarcane. This borer after diapause in winter starts its activity after first rainfall. The emerged moths lay eggs in hundred in a single batch on the fresh shoots of the sugarcane plant. Young larvae enter the top portion of a cane through a single hole just above the node. They feed gregariously by making spiral galleries which run upward. During this period of feeding the central shoot of stem dries. This dried shoot can be seen from a distance. After 7-10 days the larvae enter the adjoining canes. It pupates inside the cane. They not only reduce the yield but also affect the quality. Moreover sugar recovery is reduced. Sometimes these pests have outbreaks. This results in severe damage to the crop.

• In 1977, heavy outbreak of gurdaspur borer throughout Punjab inflicted huge loss to sugarcane crop.

• This borer is difficult to control by spraying insecticides, hence granular insecticides had been used to control this pest. Apart of ineffectiveness of many insecticides they have adverse side effects on environment and human beings.

Interventions

• The mechanical control of this pest was proposed as an alternate. A campaign was started by IPMP to remove and destroy the top portion/nodes of the infested canes.

• Teams of workers were deployed in the area for this purpose with the collaboration of sugar mills management of Mandi Bahuddin.

Outcome

• Weekly cutting and destroying infested cane portion from July to September by killing the larvae, unifested canes were protected from the vagaries of this borer.

• This not only increased the crop productivity but the sugar recovery was enhanced with desired economic benefits.

Way Forward

A write up in leaflet form in Urdu is required to disseminate this information to end users.


Healthy sugarcane crop

 

 

 

 

Contributors
IPMP, NARC

Sugar Mills, Mandi Bahauddin

 

 

 

Management of Stored Grain Insect Pests at Farm Level

 

Challenge

• Cereals like wheat, rice and maize are heavily damaged by different insect pests. This loss is more severe when these commodities are stored for longer period.

• Small farmers had been controlling those though conventional methods along with using pesticides. By using these methods still the losses were economical more visible.

• Stored grain insect pests are difficult to be controlled by conventional methods due to their occurrence deep in the grain and also having favorable abundant food for development.

• The farmers were having many methods of storage. One of these is to store the grains in metal bins. However the bin used was not much suitable for effective fumigation.

Interventions

• A revised version of the bin was designed which could retain fumigation gas, phosphine for required number of days.

• The designed bins were made and sold to the farmers at subsidized prices.

• The farmers were also storing the grains in bags. Phosphine fumigation under polythene sheets was introduced.

• These two technologies were advocated and implemented in many parts of Punjab specially Pothowar and around it.

Outcome

• These interventions effectively managed insect pests at economic level. The damage which could run up to 40% was considerably reduced to an economic level.

Way Forward

A write up in leaflet form in Urdu is required to disseminate this information to end users.


Metal Bin

 

Polythene enclosure and phosphine fumigation (PEPF Tech.)

 

 

Contributors

IPMP,NARC

 

 

Management of Red pumpkin beetle Aulacophora foveicollis (Lucas) on cucumber

 

Challenge

• Cucumber is an important crop, which is grown on an area of 1178 hectares with the production of 6804 tonnes. Red pumpkin beetle is one of the most important pests of cucumber and other cucurbits. The grubs feed on the roots and underground portion of host plants and fruits touching the soil.

• Adult beetles feed voraciously on leaf lamina making irregular holes. They prefer young seedling and tender leaves and damage may even kill the seedlings. Some time the attack is so severe that the crop has to be resown

• The insecticides are applied to control this pest. Due to extensive and intensive use of pesticides human health and environment degradation problems have erupted.

Interventions

• Following insecticidal and non-insecticidal treatments were compared against red pumpkin beetle in order to determine effective control measure. Data on plant survival percentage and number of beetles found dead after the application of treatment were recorded.

 Insecticidal treatments:

a) Endosulfan, b) Methamidophos, c) Carbofuran,

d) Carbaryl dust, e) Carbaryl dust + dung ash

 Non-insecticidal treatments:

a) Seedlings transplant, b) Dung ash

Outcome

• The results showed that the non-insecticidal treatment i.e., 3-4 leaves stage seedlings transplant was equally effective as all insecticidal treatments in avoiding complete plant mortality.

Way Forward

There is a need to develop an IPM model for red pumpkin beetle.

 


Adult female damaging plant

 

 

 


3-4 leaf stage cucumber seedlings

 

 

 

Contributors

Vegetable Programme, NARC

IPMP, NARC.

Management of Fruit Flies

 

Challenge

• Fruit flies are most important among multitude of insect pests of quarantine importance. Out of 24 fruit fly species of quarantine importance, 7 are known from Pakistan. These include Bactrocera dorsalis, B. zonata, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae, Carpomyia vesuviana, Dacus ciliatus and Myiopardalis pardalina.

• Farmers rely on pesticides for controlling fruit flies. In guava, six pesticide sprays are being done, while in mango, plums, peaches, persimmon, pears and apricot, two sprays are done. In an estimate about 10% of pesticide used in the country is applied for control of fruit flies.

• Pakistan’s export of fruit and vegetables faces serious threats due to the use of pesticides. Because of fruit fly issue some countries like US, Australia, Germany, Japan, Korea and Jordan have already banned the import of fruits from Pakistan.

Intervention

• Integrated Pest Management Program (IPMP) initiated a four years ALP project starting from year 2000 with five components; IPMP, NARC, ARI, Quetta, NIA, Tandojam, CABI, Rawalpindi and NIFA, Peshawar, targeting different fruits like mango, guava, ber and vegetables.

• The main focus of the IPMP component was guava and mango The following techniques were evaluated at farmers field of the Khanewal, Multan (mango) and Sharaqpur (guava).

• The following IPM model was evaluated for their effectiveness:

 MAT (male annihilation technique), fix one plywood block (6×6×1.25 cm) per acre soaked for 24 hours in Methyl Eugenol and contact insecticides (95:5) and recharge after 10-12 days.

 BAT (bait application technique), spray 3% mixture of protein hydrolysate and stomach poison (90:10) (BAIT)on 1 m2 canopy of each tree after 10-12 days.

 Apply 2% neem seed water extract on susceptible varieties at 10-12 days interval.

• Sanitation (destruction of infested fruits), collect fallen fruits at 3 days interval and burry it deep in the soil.

Outcome

• The technology was tested on 450 acres of mango at Bahawalpur Road, Multan resulted in only 0.3% damage to fruits by the flies as compared to 20% damage in control.

Way Forward

More demonstrations at field level are needed.

 

 

 

Contributors

Vegetable Programme, NARC

IPMP, NARC.

 

 

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