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Sugar Crops

Q. How many varieties have been developed by PARC and which are the varieties recommended for general cultivation?

Ans. The following 28 sugarcane varieties have been developed and released for commercial cultivation in Pakistan through National Coordinated Research |Program of PARC. 

Variety

Year of Release

Maturity

Cane Yield

 (t/ha)

Sugar Recovery

(%)

Developed in Punjab

SPSG-26

1996

Early

98

10.5

CP-43-33

1996

Early

80

11.7

CP-72-2086

1996

Early

85

12.4

CP-77-400

1996

Early

90

11.9

CPF-237

2000

Early

95

12.5

SPF-213

2000

Mid

100

11.0.

HSF-240

2002

Early

95

11.7

SPF-234

2002

Early

100

11.6

SPF-245

2004

Early

100

11.0

HSF-242

2006

Early

108

12.4

CPF-243

2006

Mid

102

12.6

CPF-246

2011

Mid

105

12.0

CPF-247

2011

Mid

105

12.0

Developed in Sindh

Ghulabi-95

1995

Early

150

11.0

NIA-98

1998

Mid

180

10.0

Thatta-10

2004

Early

180

11.0

NIA2004

2004

Early

150

10.0

LRK-2001

2005

Early

200

11.0

Developed in Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (KPK)

CMP-13

1989

Early

70

10.5

CO-1321

1989

Early

70

12.0

March-92

1992

Mid

100

12.0

Mardan-93

1993

Early

100

12.5

Jn.88/1

1996

Early

70

12.7

Abid-96

1996

Early

70

12.5

SN-98

1998

Early

72

12.2

MCP-421

2003

Mid

80

12.5

Mardan-2005

2005

Early

90

12.2

 


Which are the recommended fertilizers and their doze per acre?

Ans.

1          Well rotten/decomposed FYM or Press mud 2 trolleys/ Acre should be applied and incorporated/plowed up followed by irrigation one month before planting.

2          86-110 Kg N + 46 Kg P2O5 +50 Kg K2O per acre that equals about

·         3-4 bags Urea + 2 bags DAP + 2 bags SOP/MOP per acre or

·         4-5 bags Urea + 5 bags SSP or 2 bags TSP + 2 bags SOP/MOP per acre or

·         3-4.5 bags Ammonium nitrate + 4.5 bags nitrophos + 2 bags SOP/MOP per acre or

·         Similar combinations

3:         Apply

·         2 bags DAP or 3 bags Nitrophos or (5 bags SSP + 1 bag urea) or (2 bags TSP + 1 bag urea) and one bag of SOP at planting.

·         1 bag urea at completion of germination in case of February plant crop or in February if September plant crop.

·         1 Bag urea 45 days after 1st application (i.e., April).

·         1 bag urea and 1 bag SOP/MOP before earthing up (in May).

·         1 bag urea (need based).

·         In Zinc and Boron deficient soilsapply Zinc sulphate at 10-15 kg per acre and Borax at 3-5 kg per acre once at planting.

·         Note

o   Urea can be replaced with ammonium nitrate (AN); 1 bag urea = 1.75 bags AN.

o   DAP can be replaced with Nitrophos (NP): 1 bag DAP = 2.25 bags NP; but 2.25 bags of NP also give an additional amount of 18 kg N (about 0.75 bag of urea) that must be deducted while planning N application.

Q. Which are the sources of seed availability?

Ans. Nearest sugar mills, research institutes/stations

Q. Which are the major diseases and how these can be controlled?

Ans. Red rot, whip smut, sugarcane mosaic virus, red strip of sugarcane, sugarcane rust and pokka boeing are the major diseases of sugarcane in Pakistan and can cause severe losses in sugarcane yield and production and quality.

Approaches for control of these diseases are:

·         Use of resistant varieties

·         Regular rouging of diseased plants and burning of diseased plant parts.

·         Hot water treatment of seed setts at 50-55 °C for 25-30 minutes.

·         Seed Chemical treatment before sowing with fungicides (Vitavex, Diathane-M35)


Q. What are the major recommendations for farmers to improve sugarcane production?

Ans.Salient feature of Sugarcane Production Technology:

Land preparation

a)      Rotavator (1)

b)      Precise land leveling

c)      Tine cultivation/plowing along with planking (2-3)

d)       Use sub-soiler or chisel plough after3-4 years

Planting time

a)      Autumn (September-October)

b)      Spring (February-March)

Planting method

a)      Two rows of sets at about 10 inches apart in 4 feet a part trenches (~10 inches deep) i.e. 2 feet trench & 2 feet ridge made by sugarcane ridger       Or

b)      One row with overlapping ends of cane sets in 2.5 feet a part 7-8 inches deep furrows.

Cane seed rate & Quality

 

 

a)      Disease/insect or rat biting free seed

b)       30 thousand two budded sets per acre or

c)      80-100 maunds cane per acre (thin & short inter-node variety)

d)      100-120 maunds cane per acre (thick & long inter-node variety)

Seed Cover:- 

              1-1.5 inch soil

Cane variety

Punjab:

North zone :

CP 77-400, CP 72-2086, CPF-237,SPF-213, HSF-240 and HSF-242

Central zone:

CPF-237, CP43-33, SPF-213, CP77-400, CP 72-2086, HSF-240, HSF-242, CPF-243, CPF-246 & CPF-247

South zone:

CP77-400, CP72-2086, CP43-33, BF-162, SPF-213, SPSG-26, HSF-240, SPF-245, CPF-243 & SPF-234, CPF-246 & CPF-247

Sindh:

Upper Sindh (Area North to Hyderabad)

NIA-98, Thatta-10, NIA-2004, LRK-2001, LRK-2004, SPSG-26, SPF-234, CPF-237, HSF-240, HSF-242, CPF-246 & CPF-247

Lower Sindh (Area South to Hyderabad)

NIA-98, Thatta-10, NIA-2004, LRK-2001, LRK-2004, SPSG-26, CPF-237, HSF-240, HSF-242, CPF-246 & CPF-247

Kuyber Pakhtoon Khwa:

North KPK (Peshawer and Mardan valley)

Mardan-92, Mardan-93, CP-77-400, Jn88/1, Abid-96, SN-98, MCP-421, SPSG-394, Mardan-2005

Southern Part (D.I. Khan)

CP-77-400, Jn88/1, Abid-96, SN-98, MCP-421,SPSG-394, Mardan-2005, CP-43-33, HSF-240, HSF-242, CPF-246 & CPF-247

Inter-culture/Weed control

a)      After completion of germination, rotavate the beds once or inter-culture twice, once in “Wattar” and 2nd time in dry condition with inter-row cultivator before earthing up.

b)      Use of herbicides:

Spray of Ametrin + Atrazin (80 WP) @ 1 kg  +  Sunstar (15% W.G.) @40 per acre after 6 days of sowing in watter condition.

Use of Arcus (75WDG) @ 20 g per acre in spite of Sunstar gives better results.

Earthing up

At the completion of tillering before or during June.

Fertilization

86-110 Kg Nitrogen +46 Kg phosphorus (P2O5) +50 Kg potash (K2O) per acre

3-4 bags Urea + 2 bags DAP + 2 bags SOP/MOP per acre

FYM 5 t/acre or pressmud 2 t/acre should apply one month before sowing.

(for detail also read Q.2)

Irrigation

·         Good quality water having salts (TSS) < 800 mg/L, SAR < 8 and RSC < 1.25 me/L.

·         16-20 irrigation (64-80acre inches):

a)      Planting irrigation

b)       March-April =   12-16 days (3 irrigations)

c)      May-June =      8-10 days (5 irrigations)

d)      July-August =    12-14 days (3 irrigations)

e)      Sept.-October = 15-20 days (3 irrigations)

f)       Nov.-Dec. =         25-30 days (2 irrigations)

g)      January –February = (20-25 days (2-3 irrigations for September Crop).

Note: increase 2-3 irrigation during May-August if drought prevails.

Insect-pests control

a)      Apply one bag (8 kg) of granulars (Carbofuran) in furrows after placement of seed setts and irrigate the field or 2 liter Chlorpyriphos per acre with water/spray over setts after planting to control borers and termites.

b)      Apply 1 bag (8 kg) of Carbofuran at completion of germination.

c)      Apply 2 bags of Carbofuran after earthing up followed by heavy irrigation.

d)      In case of termite attack apply Chloropyriphos @ 1.5-2.0 liters/acre with irrigation. It also controls Pyrilla or white fly attack, to some extent.

e)      For Pyrilla or white fly attack apply advantage 20EC (carbosulfuran) @ 500mL/acre or thiodan 35 EC @  400 mL/acre.

Or use

a)      Trichograma or Chrysopa cards or light traps for Borers control

b)      Epipyropes for Pyrilla control,

Cards are available at different sugar mills.

Diseases management

a)      Cultivation of resistant varieties

b)      Use healthy and disease free seed

c)      Uproot affected plants

d)      Cane setts treatment with hot water

e)      Cane setts treatment with fungicides

f)       Avoid movement of water from diseased crop to health crop.

Harvesting

a)      November-March

b)      Stop irrigation 25-30 days before harvesting

c)      Harvest 1st early then medium and then late maturing varieties

d)      Harvest lodged, ratoon and September crop first preferably.

Seed Management

Grow separate nursery of approved varieties to obtain disease free seed for planting. Also apply 1 bag more urea for better growth to it.   

 

Ratoon Management

 

·         Keep ratoon from January-March (frost-free) harvested crop.

·         Cut crop close to the ground level.

·         Irrigate and interculture in 15 days after harvesting.

·         Apply DAP & Potash after interculture and breaking of ridges and then irrigate the field.

·         Apply 1st dose + 30% more N fertilizer in 15 days after harvesting.

·         Control weeds from ratoon crop with weedicides and intercullture.

·         Control insect pests with similar practice.

·         Spray ferrus sulphate at 1.5 kg per acre in case of yellow plants appeared in the crop at sprouting. It could increase 10-20 % yield.

 

Impact of production technology

·         20% yield increased by trench planting over flat planting.

·         Disease free seed improves cane yield and sugar recovery by 30% and 25%, respectively.

·         Biological control and light traps are effective tools against sugarcane borers.

·         Fertilizer drilling/band placement also improves cane yield.

·         Integrated use of organic/press mud and inorganic fertilizer improves the cane yield up to 25% with reduction in production cost.

·         Integrated chemical and mechanical weed control improves cane yield over along chemical or mechanical method of weed control.

·         September sowing improved the yield by 25-30% and mill recovery by 1.0%.

·         Following proper production technology a farmer will get cane yield of 900-1200 maunds per acre in KPK, 1200-1500 maunds per acre in Punjab and more than 1500 maunds per acre in Sindh.

 

Q. What are the major recommendations for farmers to improve Sugar beet production?

 

Ans: Salient Feature of Sugar beet Production Technology

Soil type

Sandy to sandy-loam and loam are preferable

Climate

Frost free cool climate for most of the growing period

Land preparation

Deep plowing (25 cm), disking, leveling, planking and ridges formation)

Height of ridges

8-10 inches

Row spacing (Ridge-ridge distance)

60 cm  or 75 cm (2 or 2.5 ft)

Sowing

Top for 60 cm and double row at the sides of 75 cm ridges

Time sowing

10th October to 15 November

Method of sowing

·         Dibbling manually on top of ridges or both side of ridges

·         Tractor by sugar beet planter

Plant to plant distance

12.5 -15 cm (5-6 inches)

Seed rate

1-1.5 kg/acre (2.5-3.75 kg/ha)

Seed/kg

35-40 thousand seeds/kg

Seed/hill (hole)

1 seed/hill or place

Depth of sowing

2-3 cm

Thinning

If needed, at-4-6 leaf stage

Plant population

80-100 thousand plants per hectare

35-40 thousand plants per acre

Fertilization Amount (NPK)

100 kg ha = 120 + 100+63

Bags

·         1.5 bags DAP + 1.5 bag Urea + 1 bag Potash (MOP/SOP) per acre at planting/before ridge making

·         1 bag urea after thinning  60-75 days after planting

Varieties:-

Antek, Estiban, Kaweterma

Irrigation

·         7-9 irrigation (16 acre inches) according to climatic conditions,

·         1st  irrigation just after sowing,

·         irrigation interval is 15-20 days

Weed Control

·         Weeds cause 15-25% loss in yield

·         Dual Gold @ 800-1000 mL per acre

·         Goltrix  1.5-2 kg per acre

·         Hand hoeing and inter culturing

Insect-pests

Cutworm, army worm, field cricket, gross hopper

Attack:Beet roots and leaves in Spring

Control:Methyl Parathion, Larvin, Lannate

Diseases

Seedling diseases:seed decay, pre and post emergence damping off, root infection

Foliar diseases:Cercospora leaf spot

Root diseases:Sclerotium root rot

Bacterial and viral disease:Beet yellows, beet yellow stunt, beet leaf curl, curly top.

Control:Crop rotation, resistant varieties, seed treatment with Dithane M # 35 @ 6g/kg seed

Harvesting

 

·      Within 5-6 months (April-May).

·      Digging and removal of leaves and soil from roots.

·      Beet roots should be dumped in a shady place and covered with leaves.

·      Transport to mill as soon as possible to avoid post-harvest staling losses.  

 

Resource Person

Dr. Sagheer Ahmad, SSO                                This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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