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Soybean

SOYBEAN

Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) has become an increasingly important agricultural commodity, with a steady increase in worldwide annual production. The worldwide increasing demand of soybean is due to its unique composition, excellent nutritional value, health benefits and adaptability to different types of soils and climates and versatile end uses. Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one of the most important protein and oil crop in the world.  Local production of soybean is negligible and import of soybean as soy oil and soy meal has become necessary to meet the requirement of the country. Its cultivation remained limited to a low acreage and showed a declining trend whenever efforts were not made for its promotion.     

Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important protein and oil crops in the' world. It contains 40-42 % good quality protein and 18-22 % oil. In Indo-Pak sub-continent preliminary work on soybean was started during the thirties in pre-partition Punjab by initiating plantation in the rainfed areas and at Tandojam, Sindh in 1960. Some local black and chocolate coloured varieties of pulse now identified as soybean are being gown from time immemorial in the hills of Northern Pakistan, i.e. Hazara, Azad Kashmir, Swat, Dir and Kurram Agency. To improve the prevailing varieties and introducing new ones, some research work was started in 1965 in NWFP. A number of exotic types including Brag and Lee were found more promising. These varieties were approved for commercial cultivation in Pakistan in 1968-69.

Empirically, soybean remained popular in NWFP probably because it found its place in orchards and comparatively higher yield were obtained in mild climates of northern areas than relatively severe climates of Punjab and Sindh. It has been successfully tried as inter-crop with sugarcane in NWFP while its monoculture is also common under rainfed conditions. Commercial cultivation of soybean in Pakistan started in early 1970's. Since the establishment of Oilseed Coordinated Program at PARC in 1975, extensive variety evaluation work is in progress at all the four research institutes of the Quetta - Balochistan; Tandojam - Sindh; Faisalabad- Punjab; and Tarnab (Peshawar)- NWFP. The entries so far evaluated were received from International Soybean Programme (INTSOY), Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) and Asian Agricultural Research and Development Center (A VRDC).

Potential Areas for Soybean

Provinces

District

Punjab

Rawalpindi, Attock, Jhelum, Chakwal, Gujrat, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Daska,  Sheikhupura, Lahore, Kasur, Sahiwal, Okara, Vehari, Khaniwal, Multan, Malsi

Sindh

Nawabshah, Hyderabad, Sangar, Tharpaker, Badin, Thatta

NWFP

Peshawar, Noshera, Mardan, Swabi, Malakand, Dir, Swat, Charsada, Mansehra, Kohistan

Baluchistan

Sibi, Kachi, Kalat, Khuzdar

Source: Oilseeds Development Strategy

Province wise area, production and yield of soybean

Year

Punjab

Sindh

NWFP

Balochistan

Pakistan

(Area in hectares)

2000-01   

-

86

1175

-

1261

2001-02   

-

92

1009

-

1101

2002-03   

-

44

253

-

297

2003-04

-

53

245

-

298

2004-05

-

35

185

-

220

2005-06

-

85

288

-

373

2006-07

-

55

0

-

55

2007-08

-

49

0

 

49

2008-09

-

51

2

-

53

2009-10 - 89 - - 89

(Production in tonnes)

2000-01   

-

86

1318

-

1404

2001-02   

-

95

1171

-

1266

2002-03   

-

45

306

-

351

2003-04

-

61

310

-

371

2004-05

-

34

230

-

264

2005-06

-

62

359

-

421

2006-07

-

32

0

-

32

2007-08

-

29

0

-

29

2008-09

-

31

1

-

32

2009-10 - 51 - - 51

(Yield kgs per hectare)

2000-01   

-

1000

1122

-

1113

2001-02   

-

1033

1161

-

1150

2002-03   

-

1023

1209

-

1182

2003-04

-

1151

1265

-

1245

2004-05

-

971

1243

-

1200

2005-06

-

729

1247

-

1129

2006-07

-

582

-

-

582

2007-08

-

592

-

-

592

2008-09

-

607

500

-

604

2009-10 - 573 - - 573

Source:  Agric. Statistics of Pakistan, 2009-10

 

Soybean Varieties Developed by Oilseeds Research Program, NARC

Variety released

Institute

Year of release

Yield potential (kg/ha)

NARC-I

NARC, Islamabad

1991

4500

NARC-II

NARC, Islamabad

1991

4000

Rawal-I(vegetable)

NARC, Islamabad

1993

6000

Ajmeri

NARC, Islamabad

1996

3500

 Soybean Varieties Developed under NUYT System

Variety

Institute

Year of release

Yield potential (kg/ha)

Faisalabad-83

ORI, Faisalabad

1983

-

FS-84

ORI, Faisalabad

1984

-

Swat-84

ARS, Mingora (Swat)

1984

-

Malakand-91

ARS, Mingora (Swat)

1991

-

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF SOYBEAN

Soil:                                                     Loamy soil with good drainage are more suitable

                                                             Saline and water-logged soils are not suitable

Seed bed preparation:                   2-3 ploughings with two planking.

Planting Time:                                                                    Autumn crop                   Spring  crop

                                                             Punjab             Mid-July to end July     Last week Jan.to1st week  Feb

                                                             Sind                Mid-June to Mid-July     Mid-Jan to 1st week of Feb

                                                             NWFP              May to June                1st and 2nd week of March

Seed rate:                                          80-100 kg ha-1

Method of Planting:                         Planting with seed drill.

                                                             Rows Spacing  (spring= 30 cm,  Autumn= 45 cm)

                                                             Plants Spacing  3-5  cm

 Fertilizer:                                           Nitrogen                                25 kg/ha at the time of planting.

                                                             Phosphorus                          60 kg/ha at the time of planting.

                                                             Potassium                              50 kg/ha at the time of planting.

Irrigations:                                         6 to 7 for spring and 3 to 4 for autumn depending upon the rains)

                                                             Important stages of irrigation           -  3 to 4 weeks after germination

                                                                                                                           -  initiation of flowering

                                                                                                                          - old formation stage                        

                                                                                                                          -development of seed                       

Weed control:                                   Two weedings after irrigations

Harvesting and Threshing:            Harvest when 90-95% pods turn yellow

                                                             Dry for 5-6 days and then thresh

Storage:                                             Store at about 8 to 10 percent moisture and 15oC temperature.

Crop rotations:                                 Irrigated Areas:   Rice-Soybean-Rice                Cotton-Soybean-Cotton

                                                            Rainfed Areas:        Wheat -Soybean-Wheat 

Focal Person:

Dr. Doulat Baig, SSO

 Tel: 051-90733686

 

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