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Sesame

SESAME

Sesame (Til) is grown in about 70 countries of the world. It is cultivated successfully in 26 and 24 countries of Africa and Asia, respectively. In Pakistan, it is grown in 65 districts as irrigated as well as rainfed crop. During 2001-2002, it was cultivated on an area of 136,000 hectares with national average seed yield of 513 kg/ha whereas area under this crop was 90,700 ha with total production of 41,000 tons and yield of 452 kg/ha in 2008-09. Its seed contain 50-60 percent oil and 22 percent protein. Its oil is semi-drying type and suitable for human health. Its seed is mostly used in confectionary items whereas; good quality oil is also used for medicinal purposes.

Keeping its importance in view, development of varieties with high yield potential and oil content is a need of the day. Evaluation of available germplasm (varieties/lines) is a continuous activity of various breeding programs of different provincial as well as Federal Research Institutes.

The promising accessions /lines are submitted by the plant breeders for their varied agro-ecological testing and yield performance under the system of National Uniform Yield Trials (NUYT).

Province wise area, production and yield of sesame

Year

Punjab

Sindh

NWFP

Balochistan

Pakistan

(Area'000'hectares) 

2000-01     

98.0

1.5

0.6

0.9

101.0

2001-02    

131.7

2.5

0.5

0.9

135.6

2002-03     

83.9

2.5

0.3

1.2

87.9

2003-04

53.6

4.6

0.3

1.2

59.7

2004-05

63.5

1.7

0.2

1.1

66.5

2005-06

75.1

3.4

0.1

3.4

82.0

2006-07

64.9

2.8

0.2

3.5

71.4

2007-08

65.5

7.3

0.3

3.3

76.4

2008-09

75.8

7.7

0.2

7.0

90.7

2009-10 64.1 8.8 0.1 6.8 79.8

(Production '000' tonnes) 

2000-01     

49.5

0.4

0.3

0.5

50.7

2001-02     

68.1

0.7

0.2

0.6

69.6

2002-03      

17.4

0.9

0.2

0.7

19.2

2003-04    

22.1

1.6

0.2

0.8

24.7

2004-05

28.3

0.6

0.1

0.8

29.8

2005-06

31.6

1.4

0.1

2.0

35.1

2006-07

26.9

1.3

0.1

2.1

30.4

2007-08

27.5

3.2

0.2

1.9

32.8

2008-09

33.0

3.5

0.1

4.4

41.0

2009-10 25.2 3.8 0.1 4.3 33.4

(Yield in Kgs  per hectare) 

2000-01     

505

267

500

556

502

2001-02     

517

274

492

630

513

2002-03     

208

340

605

625

219

2003-04    

412

358

610

635

413

2004-05

446

353

500

727

448

2005-06

421

412

1000

588

428

2006-07

414

464

500

600

426

2007-08

420

438

667

576

429

2008-09

435

455

500

629

452

2009-10 393 432 1000 632 419

Source:  Agri. Statistics of Pakistan, 2009-10

 Promising Lines of Oilseeds Research Program

Variety

Yield potential (kg/ha)

SG-27

1800

SG-51

2500

SG-43 1500
SG-30 1700

 Sesame Varieties Recommended under NUYT System

Variety

Institute

Year of release

Yield potential (kg/ha)

Til-89

ORI, Faisalabad

1990

1700

TS-3

ORI, Faisalabad

2000

2200

TH-6

ORI, Faisalabad

2009

2200

TS-5 ORI, Faisalabad 2011 1500

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

Soil:                                    Light sandy and medium loam acid free soils are more suitable

Seedbed Preparation:       2-3 ploughings with1-2 planking

Planting Time:                     Punjab                                           1st   July to 31st July

                                               Sindh                                             15th June to 15th July

                                               NWFP                                           15th June to 31st July

                                              Balochistan                                 1st   July  to 31st July

Seed Rate:                         a)           Line sowing                  5 kg/ha  (2 kg per acre)

                                             b)           Broadcasting                8 kg/ha  (3 kg  per acre)

Method of Planting              Row to row distance                 45 cm

                                                  Plant to plant distance             10 cm

                                                 Seed depth                             2 to 2.5 cm.

Fertilizer:                                 Nitrogen                                50 kg/ha

                                                   Phosphorus        60 kg/ha

Irrigations:                               3-4 irrigation at 15-20 days after sowing(DAS).

                                                   Second irrigation 30-40 DAS. 

                                                   Third irrigation at the time of flowering

Thinning and Hoeing              After 10-15 days single out the weak and diseases plants by keeping 10 cm spacing between plants

                                                    Two hoeings:  15-20 days and 30 days after germination.

Harvesting:                              Sesame crop matures in about 100-=120 days. Harvest when 75 %  capsules mature and turn yellow 

                                                    Stack the bundles keeping the pods upward

Threshing:                                Dry for one week and then collect the seed just by inverting the plants

 

Focal Person:

Dr. Muhammad Yasin Mirza, PSO

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Tel:

051-90733568

 

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