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RAPESEED

RAPESEED

Rapeseed (Brassica rapa and B. napus) and mustard (B. juncea) are the important crop of Brassica group grown as oilseed crops in Pakistan. These have remained one of the major sources of oil in the sub-continent for centuries. Rapeseed and mustard are rich source of oil and contains 44-46% good quality oil. In addition, its meal has 38-40% protein that has a complete profile of amino acids including lysine, methionine and cystine. The meal from canola quality rapeseed varieties is an excellent feed for animals and birds especially for poultry.

 

The improvement in processing and refining techniques have enabled to extend the use of rapeseed and mustard oil as cooking medium, salad ingredient, shortening and in margarine. Recent development of canola quality mustard further enhanced the use of mustard oil for edible purpose. The brassica crops are mostly cultivated on soils having pH 7.0 - 8.0

Area, Production  and Yield of Rapeseed And Mustard

The rapeseed (Toria, Sarson and Canola/Gobi Sarson) and mustard (Raya, Peela raya and Taramira) are traditional oilseed crops and are being grown in this region for centuries. The crop was grown on an area of about 272,100 ha with a production of 230,000 tons annually with average yield of 812 kg/ha.

Province wise Area, Production and Yield of Rapeseed/Mustard and Canola Crops in Pakistan

Year

Punjab

Sindh

NWFP

Balochistan

Pakistan

(Area'000'hectares) 

2000-01    

128.9

74.2

24.3

44.7

272.1

2001-02    

134.9

76.1

19.3

38.6

268.9

2002-03    

150.8

71.7

19.9

38.2

280.6

2003-04

157.2

67.4

20.7

34.5

279.8

2004-05    

158.3

53.1

21.6

24.2

257.2

2005-06    

(2.4) 127.6

(3.6) 49.9

(1.1) 18.9

(3.6) 30.9

(10.7) 227.3

2006-07

(2.8) 135.6

(2.7) 70.4

(1.0) 19.6

(3.4) 40.2

(9.90) 265.8

2007-08

(3.6) 127.4

(2.3) 49.1

(1.1) 16.4

(3.3) 35.0

(10.3) 227.9

2008-09

(5.5) 142.8

(2.2) 47.6

(1.0) 17.7

(3.0) 36.8)

(11.7) 244.9

2009-10 (5.7) 111.5 (1.9) 40.7 (1.0) 15.3 (4.0) 22.8 (12.6) 190.3

(Production '000' tonnes) 

2000-01   

127.6

59.4

15.4

28.2

230.6

2001-02   

130.5

58.8

8.5

23.5

221.3

2002-03   

146.1

57.6

8.9

22.4

235.0

2003-04    

151.3

57.3

9.0

20.6

238.2

2004-05    

142.5

47.6

10.2

15.5

215.8

2005-06    

(2.3) 108.6

(3.8) 44.7

(0.7) 8.6

(2.4) 18.9

(9.2) 180.8

2006-07

(2.9) 120.2

(3.1) 70.1

(0.5) 9.4

(2.2) 21.3

(8.7) 221.0

2007-08

(3.4) 103.6

(2.7) 50.3

(0.5) 7.6

(2.2) 18.5

(8.8) 180.0

2008-09

(3.1) 120.5

(2.6) 51.1

(0.5) 7.4)

(2.0) 19.9

(11.2) 198.9

  (6.4) 96.3 (2.4) 46.5 (0.4) 7.3 (2.4) 12.1 (11.6) 162.2

Note:- Figures in parenthesis are of canola

(Yield in Kgs per hectare) 

2000-01    

990

799

579

599

836

2001-02    

967

773

435

609

823

2002-03    

969

803

447

586

837

2003-04    

962

850

435

597

851

2004-05    

900

896

472

640

839

2005-06    

851

896

455

612

795

2006-07

886

996

480

530

831

2007-08

817

1031

463

540

793

2008-09

844

1073

418

541

812

2009-10 864 1151 477 531 852

Source: Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan, 2009-10

CANOLA

Rapeseed-mustard is a traditional crop of Pakistan. The oil extracted from indigenous varieties of rapeseed-mustard is not being used in the manufacture of vegetable ghee or as vegetable oil because of high erucic acid (40-70% in oil) which is harmful to human health. Canola belongs to a rapeseed group (Brassica napus L.). It is a future hope of Pakistan as it can play a significant role for the enhancement of edible oil production in the country. It is infect simply a variety of rapeseed with certain defined characteristics especially low erucic acid in oil and low glucosinolates in oilseed cake. Canola oil contains no cholesterol and low erucic oils are nutritional more desirable for human health. The best soils for the production of canola are those that have good tilth, medium texture, relatively deep top soil with good nutrient supply.

ACHIEVEMENTS

Although rapeseed and mustard produce respectable quantity of oil but limited quantity is being used by ghee and feed industry mainly due to high erucic acid in oil and toxic sulphur compound (Glucosinolate) in the meal. Canola are specially bred rapeseed varieties, high yielding  with low in erucic acid and oilseed cake (meal) low in glucosinolate. The oil extracted from canola varieties is nutritionally more desirable for human health and meal is better animal feed particularly for poultry. Research and development efforts of Oilseeds Research Programme have made tangible achievements in rapeseed/canola and mustard:

Rapeseed /Mustard Varieties/Hybrid Developed at NARC

Variety

Institute

Year of release

Yield potential (kg/ha)

Canola    

 

 

 

Westar

NARC, Islamabad

1991

2100

Shiralee

NARC, Islamabad

1991

2500

CON-I

NARC, Islamabad

1996

2800

CON-II

NARC, Islamabad

1996

3000

CON-III

NARC, Islamabad

1996

2500

Pakola

NARC, Islamabad

2007

2620

Canola Raya

NARC, Islamabad

2007

2364

Non-Canola         

 

 

 

BARD-1

NARC, Islamabad

1990

2900

Canola Hybrid

 

 

 

PARC Canola Hybrid

NARC, Islamabad

2011

3200

Rapeseed-Mustard Varieties recommended under NUYT System

Variety

Institute

Year of release

Yield potential (kg/ha)

Raya Anmol

ORI, Faisalabad

1988

2223

Khanpur Raya

ORI, Faisalabad

2000

3223

Pak-Cheen

ARI, Tarnab

1989

2400

Sarhein 95

ARI, Tandojam

1995

3000

Chakwal-Raya

BARI, Chakwal

1996

3450

Tandojam Raya

ARI, Tandojam

2000

-

Abasin 95

NIFA, Peshawar

1996

2300

Development of Canola Quality Mustard

Mustard is the dominating Brassica species, grown on about 65% of total rapeseed and mustard area. This have high yield potential, early maturity, resistance to plant lodging and seed shattering, tolerance to heat and drought. In addition, mustard species are resistance to deadly disease "blackleg" and less attractive to injurious pest "aphids". In spite of these advantages, indigenous mustard varieties contain high erucic acid in the oil and glucosinolates in the meal. Therefore, oil from these cultivars is not palatable to the most consumers. Therefore, the canola quality traits has been incorporated into the locally adopted mustard varieties and are under advance testing stages.

TECHNICAL INTERVENTIONS

 Adequate production of quality seed of canola for planting

 Development of production technology and its dissemination to the growers

 Development of new farm machinery for canola and improvement of existing machinery to make it more efficient.

 Pre and post harvest management of canola to minimize losses

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF RAPESEED AND MUSTARD

Irrigated Areas

Soil: All soil types suitable except water logged and acidic soils with high Alumunium and Manganese

                        Seedbed Preparation:    2 – 3 ploughings + 1-2 planking

                        Planting time:              North Punjab                        =              1st October to 31st October

                                                                South Punjab                       =              15th October to 15th November

                                                                NWFP                                    =              Mid September to Mid October

                                                                Sindh                                     =              Mid October to Mid November

                                                                Balochistan                         =              Mid October to Mid November

                        Seed Rate:                   Line sowing                         =              4-5 kg/ha

                                                               Broadcast                             =              5-6 kg/ha

                        Method of Planting:   Row to row distance           =              30-45 cm

                                                               Plant to plant distance       =              4-5 cm

                                                               Seed depth                          =              2-3 cm

                        Fertilizer:                      Nitrogen                               =              90 kg/ha

                                                               Phosphorus (P2O5)          =              60 kg/ha

                                                               Potash                                 =              50 kg/ha

                        Irrigations:                   3-4   irrigations (depending upon rains)

                                                               -               1st irrigation 30-45 days after germination

                                                               -               2nd irrigation of bud formation

                        3rd  at the time of flowering

                        4th at the time of seed filling

                        Aphid Control: Spray  Master 60 SL            @ 1000 to 1500 ml/ha or Lorsben 40 EC  @ 700  to 1000 ml /ha

                        Weeding:        One hoeing manually or by tractor  (if possible hoeing before 2nd irrigation)

                        Harvesting:      Matures in 160-190 days, harvest when 30-40% seeds matures and turn brown /yellow

                        Threshing:      Sundry for 8-10 days and then thresh

                        Drying & Storage:      Dry seed upto 8-10% moisture level and store at dry places

Rainfed Areas

                      Soil: All soil types suitable except water logged and acidic soils with high Alumunium and Manganese

                      Seedbed Preparation:1 Deep ploughing before monsoon  2-3 ploughings + 102 plankings

                      Planting time:         North Punjab                    =              1st October to 31st October

                                                         South Punjab                   =              15th October to 15th November

                                                         NWFP                               =              Mid September to Mid October

                                                         Sindh                                =              Mid October to Mid November

                                                         Balochistan                     =              Mid October to Mid November

                        Seed Rate:             Line sowing                    =              4-5 kg/ha

                                                         Broadcast                        =              5-6 kg/ha

                        Method of Planting:   Row to row distance          =              30-45 cm

                                                          Plant to plant distance           =              4-5 cm

                                                          Seed depth                              =              2-3 cm

                        Fertilizer:                   Nitrogen                                 =              90 kg/ha

                                                          Phosphorus (P2O5)              =              60 kg/ha

                                                                Potash                             =              50 kg/ha

                        Aphid Control:           Spray  Master 60 SL @ 1000 to 1500 ml/ha    or Lorsben 40 EC  @ 700  to 1000 ml /ha

                        Weeding:                   One hoeing manually or by tractor  (if possible hoeing before 2nd irrigation)

                        Harvesting:  Matures in 160-190 days, harvest when 30-40% seeds matures and turn brown /yellow

                        Threshing:   Sundry for 8-10 days and then thresh

                        Drying & Storage:      Dry seed upto 8-10% moisture level and store at dry places

 

Focal Person:

Dr. Abdul Rashid, PSO

 051-90733565