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Sunflower

SUNFLOWER

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the four most important annual crops in the world grown for edible oil. In Pakistan although it was introduced as an oilseed crop 40 years back but its expansion in acreage and production is fluctuating due to various production and socio-economic constraints.  Its seed contains 35-55% oil contents. Research work on this crop has shown that there is great potential of growing it under all the soil and climatic conditions in rainfed as well as irrigated farming system in different agro-ecological zones.

The area of adaptation for this crop are in the cotton belt (Vehari, Lodhran, Bahawalpur, Umerkot) and rice growing areas of Sialkot and Badin in Punjab and Sindh, respectively. The crop is grown in spring as well as in autumn. The average yield in Pakistan is 1.3 tons/ha. Almost 99% area is under hybrids imported by different multinational seeds companies. However, local hybrids are also available and area under them is increasing with the time. It has good prospects as intercrop with sugarcane, if suitable hybrids and production technology is available. During 2000-01, the area was 58998 ha and increased to 319743 ha in 2008-09 with production of 420487 tons and per hectare yield of 1315 kg.

Sunflower is an important oilseed crop and is successfully grown under different climatic conditions of the country, i.e., in the warm and harsh conditions of southern part of the country to mild and cool climate in the north. It has great potential to bridge the gaps between the production and consumption of edible oil.

Province wise area, production and yield (kg/ha) of sunflower in Pakistan

Year

Punjab

Sindh

Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa

Balochistan

Pakistan

(Area in hectares)

2000-01   

18267

37371

2814

546

58998

2001-02   

21439

38530

613

2663

63245

2002-03   

37290

63909

364

6154

107717

2003-04

84108

171305

89

177

255679

2004-05

56905

206386

178

536

264005

2005-06

75054

248979

472

577

325082

2006-07

90454

231660

349

604

323067

2007-08

152089

243973

524

720

397306

2008-09

64813

253713

527

690

319743

2009-10

34112

220963

559

487

256121

(Production in tonnes)

2000-01   

24920

39737

3394

595

68646

2001-02   

28877

40827

1335

2923

73962

2002-03   

54885

66272

666

6708

128531

2003-04

122490

235683

171

188

358532

2004-05

86356

240516

241

537

327650

2005-06

122840

224198

654

583

348275

2006-07

156258

249775

579

612

407224

2007-08

324973

277326

794

801

603894

2008-09

130510

288393

812

772

420487

2009-10

65050

259200

899

329

325478

(Yield in kgs per hectare)

2000-01   

1364

1063

1206

1090

1164

2001-02   

1347

1060

2178

1098

1169

2002-03   

1472

1037

1830

1090

1193

2003-04

1456

1376

1921

1062

1402

2004-05

1518

1165

1354

1002

1241

2005-06

1637

900

1386

1010

1071

2006-07

1727

1078

1659

1013

1260

2007-08

2137

1137

1515

1113

1520

2008-09

2014

1137

1541

1119

1315

2009-10

1907

1173

1608

676

1271

Source:    Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan, 2009-10

 

Sunflower Hybrids of Oilseed Research Program, NARC

Hybrid released

Institute

Year of release

Yield potential (kg/ha)

PARC-92E

NARC, Islamabad

1993

3949

SMH-9706

NARC, Islamabad

VEC

4587

SMH-0907

NARC, Islamabad

 

 

SMH-0917

NARC, Islamabad

 

 

Sunflower Hybrids Recommended under NUYT System

Sunflower Hybrids Recommended under NUYT System

Hybrid

Institute

Year of release

Yield potential (kg/ha)

NK-265

Cargill

1991

3667

SF-187

Cargill

1991

4000

PI-6480

Pioneer Seeds

1991

3015

Hysun-33

ICI Pakistan

1993

4750

 

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF SUNFLOWER

1. Irrigated Areas

                Soil :                                                      Sandy to clay soil (pH 6.5 to 7.5)

                Seedbed preparation:                      One deep ploughing with mould board plough followed by cultivator and plank

                Planting Time:                                                   Spring Crop                               Autumn Crop
                Punjab                                                                  

                Attock, Rawalpindi and Gujrat                        1st Feb -  28th Feb                  1st July – 25th July

                Sialkot, Gujranwala, Kasur,                            25th Jan – 15th Feb               25th July – 10th Aug

                Lahore and Sheikhupura

                Mianwali, Sargodha, Jhang,Pak Pattan       25th Jan – 10th Feb              25th July – 10th Aug

                Faisalabad, Sahiwal, Okara,

                Khanewal, Vehari, Multan D.G.Khan               15th Jan – 10th Feb           25th July – 10th Aug

                Bahawal Nagar, Muzaffar Garh,

                Bahawalpur, Rahim Yar Khan                         10th Jan – 5th Feb             25th July – 15th Aug

                Sindh

                Southern Sindh                                                  1st Dec –  20th Feb             25th July – 5th Aug

                Northern Sindh                                                  15th Dec – 20th Feb           25th July – 15th Aug

                Dobari Crop                                                       1st Nov – 28th Feb

                Baluchistan

                Plain Areas (Naseer Abad Division)                15th Dec – 10th Feb            25th July – 15th Aug

                Hilly Areas (Quetta, Khuzdar, Noshki)            15th Mar – 20th June

                NWFP

                Plain Areas (D.I.Khan, Bannu and Kohat)       15th Jan – 28th Feb             15th July – 20th Aug

                Hilly Areas

                Swat, Mansehra and other areas                    1st Mar – 30th June

Seed Rate:                                       5-6 kg/ha

Method of planting:                        Row to row spacing         = 75 cm

                                                           Plant to plant spacing     = 25 cm.

Fertilizer:                                          Nitrogen                         =  150 kg/ha (1/2 at planting + 1/2 at first irrigation)

                                                           Phosphorus                    =   60 kg/ha

                                                            Potassium                      =   60 kg/ha

Irrigations:                            4-5           Spring crop                                                          Autumn Crop

                                                1st            25 days  after germination                      15 days after germination

                                                2nd           15 to 20 days after 1st irrigation           10-15 days after 1st irrigation

                                                3rd            At the time of head initiation                At the time of flower initiation

                                                4th            At the time of flower completion         At the time of seed setting

                                                5th            10-15 days before harvest

Weed Control:                                       Successful weed control should include a combination of cultural and chemical methods.

Harvesting:                                             Harvest when the back of heads turn yellow and bracts brownish

Threshing:                                              Dry for 4-5 days and thresh with thresher

Drying and Storage:                             For storage 9.5 % moisture is considered suitable. 

Proposed crop rotations for sunflower:

                                Spring Crop (Irrigated areas)                          Autumn Crop ( Irrigated areas)

                                Cotton-Sunflower-Cotton-Wheat                     Sunflower-Wheat-Soybean-Wheat

                                Rice-Sunflower-Rice-Wheat                               Sunflower-Wheat-Groundnut

                                Potato-Sunflower-Potato-Potato                       Fodder-Sunflower-Wheat

                                Potato-Sunflower-Maize-Wheat

2.             Rainfed Areas

                Soil :                                       Sandy to clay. soil (pH 6.5 to 7.5)

                Seedbed preparation:       One deep ploughing with mould board plough followed by cultivator and plank

                Planting Time:                                             Spring Season                     Autumn Season
                Punjab                                                                  

                Attock, Rawalpindi, Gujrat                               Mid Jan -  Mid Feb              Mid Jul -  Mid Aug

                Mianwali and Jhelum                                                          

                D.G.Khan, Muzaffar Garh and Layyah                Month of January                 Mid Jul to Mid Aug

                Sindh

                Dobari lands                                                    1st Nov – 31st Jan

                Baluchistan

                Qeutta Khuzdar, Noshki                                   1st Mar – 30th Apr

                NWFP

                Hazara division                                                1st Feb to Mid Mar               1st Jul – 31st Jul

                D.I. Khan, Bannu                                             Month of Jan                        Mid Jul – Mid Aug

Seed Rate:                                            5-6 kg/ha

Method of planting:                             Row to row spacing             = 60 cm

                                                                Plant to plant spacing         = 20 cm.

Fertilizer:                                              Nitrogen                                 =  120 kg/ha before planting

                                                                Phosphorus                         =   50 kg/ha before planting

Irrigations:                            4-5           Spring Season                                     Autumn Season

                                                1st            25 days  after germination                 15 days after germination

                                                2nd           15 to 20 days after 1st irrigation          10-15 days after 1st irrigation

                                                3rd            At the time of head initiation             At the time of flower initiation

                                                4th            At the time of flower completion       At the time of seed setting

                                                5th            10-15 days before harvest

Weed Control:                     Successful weed control should include a combination of cultural and chemical methods.

Harvesting:                           Harvest when the back of heads turn yellow and bracts brownish

Threshing:                           Dry for 4-5 days and thresh with thresher

Drying and Storage:          For storage 9.5 % moisture is considered suitable. 

Proposed crop rotations:

                                                             Spring Crop (Rainfed areas)                             Autumn Crop ( Rainfed areas)

                                                             Sunflower-Fodder-Wheat                                   Sunflower-Wheat-Groundnut
                                                                                                                                              Sunflower-Wheat-Maize-Soybean

Focal Person:

 

Dr. Muhammad Ayub Khan, PSO

  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Tel:

 051-90733685

 

PARC Toll Free
Help Desk (9:00am to 5:00pm)

0800-84420

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