Google Translate Widget by Infofru

Author Site Reviewresults

Print

Fodder Research Program

FODDER RESEARCH PROGRAM
NARC, Islamabad

INTRODUCTION

Pakistan is blessed with diversified type of livestock. It not only provides food security through supply of milk, meat and self-employment of both men and women but also plays an important role for poverty alleviation of smallholder livestock farmers. It contributes about 11.5% in national GDP and about 55% toward agricultural GDP. The livestock population (buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep, asses, camels, horses and mules) is 163.0 million heads in Pakistan (Economic Survey 2010-11). The livestock population is increasing at the rate of 4.2% per year and accordingly its feed requirements are also increasing. Regular supply of adequate and nutritious fodder is essential for the promotion and development of livestock. Fodder crops are the main and cheapest source of feed for livestock. However, shortage of fodder production is the major limiting factor for livestock production in our country. About 2% reduction in fodder area in each decade along-with two important fodder scarcity periods, one in winter months (November to January) and other in summer (May-June) further worsening the situation (Figure-2). At present, fodder crops are grown over 10.3 % of the total cropped area of 22.6 million hectares (Figure-3). The share in area of Punjab is 82.56%, Sindh 11.50% NWFP 4.48% and Baluchistan 1.46% (Table-2). The area under various fodder crops in the country is estimated as 2.31 million hectares and annual fodder production 51.92 million tons. The average fodder production is 22.5 t ha-1 (Agric. Statistic. of Pakistan 2009-10), which is too low to meet even half of the maintenance requirements of the present livestock population in the country. The deficit estimate variously is 15-30 percent of the requirement in terms of nutrients. The shortage is larger if expressed in terms of digestible protein. In Pakistan mainly two types of livestock production practices are prevailing i.e. (i) rural household where animals are closely integrated with the rural subsistence economy using grown fodder which comprise of all crops that are used as cut and carry livestock feed (ii) large herds (mostly small ruminants) kept in rangelands where livestock feed include all vegetation grazed and browsed by livestock, with particular reference to rainfed flat lands, hill lands and rangelands. More than half of animal feed is coming from fodders and crop residues, 1/3rd from grazing of rangelands, wastelands, canal bank, road sides and the rest is from crops and their by products (Table-1).

Table-1: Contribution of different sources to feed livestock in Pakistan.

Sources

Contribution (%)

Fodder and crop residues

51

Forage/grazing

38

Cereal by-products

06

Post harvest grazing

03

Oilcakes, meals, animal protein

02

 

Major fodder crops grown during winter include berseem, lucerne, oats, barley and mustard; while during summer these are maize, sorghum, S.S. Hybrids, millet guar and cowpeas (Table-2). The area with minor fluctuations decreased from 2.6 million hectares in 1976-77 to 2.31 million hectares in 2009-10 (Figure-1). However, total production in the corresponding years increased from 45.10 to 51.92 million tones. Similarly, yield per unit area also increased from 17.4 to 22.5t/ha (i.e. about 30%) as a result of the concerted Research and Development (R & D) efforts made by the fodder research scientists through the development of improved production technologies. The problem of green fodder shortage occurred during two deficits periods have been recently solved by growing multi-cut fodder crops like S.S. hybrids, lucerne, mixtures of cereals & legumes and mottgrass. However, availability of improved seed of fodder crops is one of the major limiting factors in fodder crops production in the country. It is estimated that only 5 to 10 percent area of fodder crops is grown with improved seed. Considering the subject of improved seed production, it involves a number of interlinked systems; agro-climatic conditions, specific crop adaptation to environment, socio-economic and political factors including prices and marketing, crop management and production. Unfortunately, there is neither private nor government sector involved in the seed business of fodder crops as it is in case of wheat, cotton, vegetables etc. Only 11% improved fodder seed is produced locally. The requirement is fulfilled either by importing seed from other countries and by purchasing from the under standard non-certified seed, or produced by the farmers without any consideration of seed production guidelines. There is great potential of domestic fodder crops seed production. Recently a number of private seed companies have entered in fodder seed production in the country. For example Jullundar Seed Company based at Arifwala; Younas Seed Corporation and Green Gold Faisalabad are involved in domestic fodder crops seed production.

Figure-1: Area (lac ha) production (mt) and yield (t/ha) of fodder crops in Pakistan

 

Figure-2: Seasonal availability of green fodder in the country.

 

Table-2: Crop-wise area and production of fodder crops in Pakistan

________________________________________________________________________

Crop                                        Area (mha)                             Fodder Production (mt)

________________________________________________________________________

Kharif Fodder Crops

Sorghum                                  0.41                                                     6.31

Millet                                         0.11                                                     0.76

S.S. Hybrid                              0.10                                                     1.42

Guar                                         0.21                                                     3.05

Maize                                       0.09                                                     0.96

Other Kharif Crops                0.41                                                     6.12

Rabi Fodder Crops

 

Berseem                                  0.71                                                     22.61

Lucerne                                   0.13                                                      5.32

Shaftal                                     0.02                                                      0.81

Rape & Mustard                    0.02                                                      0.34

Other Rabi Crops                 0.10                                                      4.22

________________________________________________________________________

Total                                       2.31                                                   51.92

________________________________________________________________________

 

The province wise area and production of all fodder crops in Pakistan for the year 2009-10 are given in Table-3. The Punjab province produces 80.93% of the total production of fodder crops in the country, followed by Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan, which produce 13.14, 4.07 and 1.86% fodder respectively. The present fodder production is not sufficient to feed the existing livestock population in the country and the situation is getting worst day by day.
 

Table-3: Province wise area (000 ha) and production (000 tones) of fodder crops in Pakistan during 2009-10.

 

Province                      Area            % of Total              Fodder            Total Fodder
                                   (000 ha)             Area                Production         Production   
                                                                                          (000 ton)                (%)

Punjab                         1908.9              82.56                 42025.5             80.93

Sindh                            265.9              11.50                   6823.7               13.14

NWFP                          103.7                4.48                   2112.4                 4.07

Balochistan                  33.7                1.46                     963.8                 1.86

Total                            2312.2            100.00                 51925.4              100.00

Source: Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan 2009-10.
 

Fodder Research Program is working under following objectives:

Coordination

  • Germplasm acquisition, evaluation and distribution
  • Provide mechanism for varietal testing & release (NUYT, VEC)
  • Establish national & international linkages
  • Joint research planning and monitoring

Research

  • Breeding for higher fodder yield, quality and resistance against diseases
  • Standardized/refinement of improved production technologies
  • Conduct research on issues of national importance, documentation and dissemination of results.

Development/Services

  • Adaptability testing of exotic fodder crops hybrids.
  • Seed production of improved varieties for dissemination to the farmers
  • Developmental/participatory research projects
  • Training/capacity building

 

 FACILITIES

Scientific Staff

06

Supporting Staff

02

Field staff

05

Area for experiments and seed increase

30 ha

Vehicles

01

Oven/drier

01

Grinding machine

01

Computers

06

Grain moisture meter

01

Field implements manual type

60

Shared Agronomy Lab

01

Shared glass house

01

 

SERVICES

§  National Uniform Fodder Yield Testing of major fodder crops (Berseem, Oats, Sorghum and Millet) for variety release

§  Distribution of fodder crops germplasm to provincial Agricultural Research Institute/Universities

§  Improved fodder crops seeds/cuttings to livestock farmers/institutes

§  Provide advice regarding improved fodder production technologies

§  Trainings/capacity building to various stakeholders

§  Adoptability testing of fodder hybrids/varieties for national & multinational institutes/companies

§  Provide information/knowledge regarding fodder crops through publications, electronic mails, telephone and TV talks

CURRENT RESEARCH

§  Coordinated research activities on Fodder Crops

            • Acquisition, evaluation, characterization and distribution of fodder crops germplasm.

            • Conducting National Uniform Fodder Yield Trials on major fodder crops (sorghum, millet, guar, oats, berseem and vetch).

§  Sorghum improvement for diseases resistance and dual nature traits

§  Adaptability testing of S. S. hybrids/varieties

§  Variety development program of oats, berseem, vetch, sorghum and millet

§  Introduction of new fodder crops

§  Seed production activity for income generation and dissemination of improved varieties.

§  Development of Sorghum Sudangrass hybrids for high forage yield and quality characters (2nd Phase).

ACHIEVEMENTS

Development of improved fodder production technology

The National Coordinated Research Program on Fodder at NARC has developed various packages of technologies for improving fodder production per unit area (Table-4).

 

Table-4 Package of Improved Production Technology for Better Fodder Yield.

Crops    

Seed rate Kg/ha

Sowing time

Method of sowing

Fertilizer   

N-P-K kg/ha

Green fodder yield (t/ha)

Berseem

20-25      

21st Sept- end of Oct.

Broadcast in standing water.

22-115-00

125-150

Lucerne

10-12      

Mid Oct.- mid Nov.

45 cm apart in lines.

22-115-00

110-125

Oats       

75-100    

21st Sept.-

30 cm apart in lines.

75-50-00

60-80

Sorghum

75-80      

March- August

     -do-   

60-60-00

50-60

S.S. hybrid

25-30

Mid Feb.- mid Mar.

45 cm apart lines in good moisture

-do- (60 kg N after each cut)

120-130

Millet     

12-15      

April- August

30 cm apart in lines

60-60-00

40-60

Guar       

40-50      

April-July

     -do-   

22-60-00

30-40

Cowpeas

30-35      

March-July

45 cm apart

22-60-00

30-40

Maize

100-120

March-August

30 cm apart

60-60-00

60-70

Mott grass

28000 Cutting/root slips

Mid February- August

75cm x 75cm

60-60-00, FYM twice in a year. 30 kg N in November for early summer production

80-200

 

Fodder  variety developed at NARC during 2011.

Newly Released Fodder Variety “NARC- Oat”

Origin and history of “NARC-Oat”.

Adaptability area:                  Irrigated areas of Pakistan and Rainfed Potohar

Breeding centre:                    NARC, Fodder Program

Breeders:                                Mr. Ashiq Hussain, Mr. Sartaj Khan and Dr. M. Shafiq Zahid

Characteristics:

v      High yielding; Yield potential 70 t ha-1.

v      Tall, broad leaved, nutritious, palatable.

v      Late variety; Cover fodder lean period of May.

v      Tolerant to insects and diseases.

 

 

 

 

Fodder crops varieties developed under NCFRP
Under National Coordinated Fodder Research Program (NCFRP) high fodder yielding good quality varieties/hybrids of different fodder crops have been developed by various institutes from the germplasm supplied by Fodder Research Program, NARC (Table 5).  Further research work is in progress for release of varieties/hybrids of oats, berseem, vetch, sorghum, sudangrass and millet.

Table-5: Fodder Crops Varieties Developed under National Coordinated Fodder Research Programme.

S. No.

Crop

Variety

Year of Approval

Name of Institute

1

Berseem

Agaiti Berseem

1986

FRI, Sargodha

2

Berseem

Pachati Berseem

1986

FRI, Sargodha

3

Berseem

Peshawari

1992

ARI, Tarnab, Peshawar

4

Berseem

Anmol

2009

AARI, Faisalabad

5

Berseem

Super Berseem

2011

AARI, Faisalabad

6

Lucerne

Sargodha Lucerne

2002

FRI, Sargodha

7

Oats

Palestine

1961

AARI, Faisalabad

8

Oats

Fatua

1962

AARI, Faisalabad

9

Oats

Algerian

1963

AARI, Faisalabad

10

Oats

W. No. 11

1965

AARI, Faisalabad

11

Oats

DN-8

1974

AARI, Faisalabad

12

Oats

Avon

1983

FRI, Sargodha

13

Oats

PD2LV65

1983

FRI, Sargodha, NARC, Isb

14

Oats

Sargodha 81

1983

FRI, Sargodha, NARC, Isb

15

Oats

S-2000

2000

FRI, Sargodha

16

Oats

NARC-Oat

2011

NARC, Islamabad

17

Oats

S-2011

2011

FRI, Sargodha

17

Sorghum

JS-263

1968

AARI, Faisalabad

18

Sorghum

Indian-III

1974

AARI, Faisalabad

19

Sorghum

No. 94

1974

AARI, Faisalabad

20

Sorghum

No. 132

1975

AARI, Faisalabad

21

Sorghum

Hegari

1975

AARI, Faisalabad

22

Sorghum

JS-2002

2002

FRI Sargodha

23

Sorghum

Chakwal Sorghum

2008

BARI, Chakwal

24

Sorghum

MR Sorghum

2011

FRI Sargodha

25

S. S. Hybrid

Pak-Sudax

1986

FRI Sargodah

26

Millet

MB-87

1991

FRI, Sargodha

27

Millet

F-2005

2010

FRI, Sargodha

28

Maize

Sgd-2002

2002

FRI, Sargodha

29

Maize x Teosinte

Mazenta

1991

FRI, Sargodha

30

Cowpeas

Rawan 2003

2003

FRI, Sargodha

31

Guar

BR-90

1991

FRI, Sargodha

32

Guar

BR-99

2000

FRI, Sargodha

33

Ryegrass

RG-1

2011

FRI, Sargodha

Varieties/Hybrids in Pipeline:            Oats              =03,   Berseem  =01,  Vetch =01      

                                                          S.S.Hybrids  =02,   Sorghum =02,  Millet =02

6.3 Germplasm

Fodder Research Programme acquired, evaluated and distributed 1339 germplasm lines of oats, Lucerne, berseem, vetch, sorghum, millet and cowpeas to fodder scientists of FRI, Sargodha, AARI, Faisalabad, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, NWFP Agriculture University Peshawar, ARI, Tandojam, ARI Sariab Quetta, BARS, Kohat, and BARI, Chakwal. For S.S. hybrids development Fodder Research Programme have acquired CMS lines and are available for distribution to the scientists of Agriculture Research Institute/universities in their sorghum x sudangrass hybrid development programmes.  

 

6.4 Year-Round Green Fodder Availability

Availability of green fodder throughout the year is one of the problems faced by dairy farmers in various ecologies of the country. To address this problem the National Coordinated Research Programme on Fodder at NARC has developed year- round green fodder availability calendar for irrigated areas (Table-6).

 Table 6. Year-round Green Fodder Availability Calendar for Irrigated Areas.

Crops    

Sowing time         

Harvesting time

Fodder Production (t/ha)

Sorghum

From 3rd week of March to mid- September.

May to December

50-70      

Sorghum + Cowpeas               

From 3rd week of March to mid- September.

May to December

40-60

Millet     

From 3rd week of March to mid- September.

May to December

45-65

Millet + Cowpeas

From 3rd week of March to mid- September.

May to December

40-60

Maize    

From 3rd week of March to mid- September.

May to December                

50-70

Maize + Cowpeas

From 3rd week of March to mid- September.

May to December

50-70

Sorghum Sudan grass hybrid

From mid- Feb. to mid-March            

Mid-April to December             

100-120 (Total of 4-5 cuttings)

Mott grass

From mid- Feb. to August

Mid-April to Dec.  (Perennial crop)      

80-150 (Total of 5-6 cuttings)

Berseem

From September to November.

Mid-December to mid-May.

80-100 (Total of 5-6 cuttings)

Berseem + Oats

From September to November.

Early December to mid-May.

100-120 (Total of 5-6 cuttings)

Lucerne

From December to November.          

Perennial crop available around the year

65-90 (Total of 6-7 cuttings)

Lucerne + oats

From Sep. to November.

Perennial crop available around the year.       

70-100     (Total of 6-7 cuttings)

Oats

From Sep. to December.

From early Dec. to end of April.

60-80

 

6.5. Distribution/selling of improved fodder varieties seed/cuttings (tons)

About 440.78 tons of basic seed/cuttings of high yielding fodder crops (i.e. oats, vetch mottgrass, cowpeas,  millet and fodder maize) were produced at NARC (Table-8). The primary objective of this activity is to disseminate high yielding varieties of fodder crops in country and to generate income.

 

Table 8. Improved seed production of fodder crops

Crop

Seed produced (tons)

Number of Farmers

Area Covered (ha)

Oats

264

1692

3520

Vetch

03

200

75

Mott grass cuttings

160.6

485

134

Cowpeas

0.5

46

125

Millet

4.5

67

300

Fodder Maize

8.18

76

82

Total

440.78

2566

4261

6.6. Training/Capacity Building

National Agricultural Research Centre has well established Agriculture Polytechnique Institute provide trainings in various disciplines to farmers, students, researchers and extension workers. Further Fodder programme provides facilities and technical support to students comes for internship/Master/M.Phel. research from various universities of the country. The details are given in the following table.

S. No

Trainees

Number

University/Institutes/Organization

1.

Scientists 

29

Agriculture Research Institutes and NGOs

2.

Extension Workers

60

Provincial Agriculture Extension Departments, NGOs

3.

Students (Internship)

30

Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, KPK Agriculture University, Peshawar, Goamal University D.I. Khan, Agriculture University Tandojam , Lasbela University of Agriculture Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal,  Balochistan Agricultre College Quetta, University of Agriculture Rawlakot (AJK).

4.

Students (Thesis)

2

Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi

5.

Agriculture Activists

103

Community Activists, Managers from various NGOs

6.

Farmers

1650

Throughout the country including AJK and Gilgit-Baltistan

6.7. Adaptability Testing

Sorghum sudangrass hybrids (S.S hybrid) is an important multicut fodder crop, It covers fodder scarcity periods of May-June. It has gain popularity among the farming community however due to non existence of S.S hybrid seed production system in the country every year its seed is imported form overseas. The import is allowed after testing the hybrids for its fodder yield and resistance against pests and diseases in various ecologies of the country. Therefore, in the last eight years (2005-12) 138 exotic sorghum sudangrass hybrids were evaluated  at 6-8 different locations under adaptability trials in collaboration with FSC&RD and 76 hybrids have been recommended for bulk import and general cultivation in the country. Through this activity an amount of Rs. 1000000/- has also been earned for the organization.

6.8. Developmental Project Implemented/in-progress

Projects

Duration

Achievements

Farming System Research Project

1988-93

·      In this project improved Mustard variety S-9 mixed in wheat provided 97% more fodder and gave Rs. 1770/ha more income compared to farmers practice.

·      In another intervention incorporation of Cowpeas as a fodder in fallow-wheat system enhance 93% more income compared to traditional fallow wheat system.

·      Introduction of improved production technology of sorghum enhance the yield and income of the farmers about Rs. 2557/ha compared to farmers practice.

Productivity Enhancement Project

 

1992-93

·      The use of improved production technology increased productivity to the tune of 50, 129 and 94% over farmers’ technology in sorghum, oats and mustard respectively.

FAO-Funded TCP Project

 

1993-96

·      Farmers were demonstrated about free grazing disadvantages which need to be restricted with fence.

·      Silage making and straw treatment with urea was successfully demonstrated.

·      Superiority of oats and berseem was  demonstrated in yield and quality compare to existing wheat, barley and shaftal.

·      Winter active Lucerne varieties were successfully introduced in orchard and other areas

·      Maize  was demonstrated as alternate of wheat, oat and barley

·      Early maturing, high yielding varieties of buckwheat and foxtail millet were introduced for higher altitudes.

·      Seed multiplication techniques of various crops were demonstrated at farmers’ level to improve seed situation in the area.

 

Rehabilitation agricultural livelihood of women in marginal and post-conflict areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan: Participatory research, dissemination and adoption of improved dairy- goat production  systems

 

2007-09

·      50-90% increase in fodder yield in all fodder crops  compare to farmers’ practice

·      Use of guar hay as supplementary feed increase goat milk 500 to 900 ml per day

·      Guar hay tripled meat-production from  47 to 133 grams per day

·      75 Farmers produced about 814 kg of guar and 953 kg seed

·      More than 350 households were direct beneficiaries of the  fodder interventions

Community Action in Integrated and Market Oriented Feed-Livestock Production in Central and South Asia Project

               

 

2007-09

·      Oats variety “PD2-LV65” has been introduced with yield potential of 44 t/ha.

·      Improved intervention (oats + vetch) produced 74 % more green fodder yield than the farmer’s traditional practice (Wheat for fodder).

·      1510 kg seed of improved oats variety “PD2-LV65” was produced by farmers for sustainable improved fodder production.

·      Millet alone and Millet + Guar mixture have good performance recording green fodder yields of 31.25 and 31.45 t/ha.

Development of S.S. Hybrids for high forage yield and quality. 

2008-10

·      CMS sorghum A&B lines acquired :           28

·      Sudan grass lines acquired:                       17

·      Hybrid developed:                                      12

·      Hybrid registered with FSC&RD                02

Development of S.S. Hybrids for high forage yield and quality (2nd Phase).

2011-13

In progress with following objectives:-

·         To maintain, purify and multiply the desirable parental lines of S. S. hybrids under various ecologies.

·         To see the fodder yield potential of best performing S. S. hybrids in various agro-climatic zones.

·         Refinement of production technology of S. S. hybrids under various environments.

·         To register developed hybrids with FSC&RD and promote its introduction to fodder growers through public-private partnership.

 

PUBLICATION

SCIENTIFIC STAFF 

 

Name

Designation / Specialization

E-mail

       
 

Dr. M. Shafiq Zahid

PSO /Project Leader

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Mr. Safdar Shafeeq

PSO

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Mr. Zulfiqar Ali

PSO

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Mr. Allah Bakhsh

PSO 

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Resource Person:

Dr. Shafiq Zahid, PSO/ PL   This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

 

PARC Toll Free
Help Desk (8:00am to 4:00pm)

  +92-51-0800-84420

Follow Us on

TwitterRSS Feed