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SUGAR CROPS RESEARCH PROGRAM

SUGAR CROPS RESEARCH PROGRAM
NARC, Islamabad

INTRODUCTION

The Coordinated Research Program on Sugar Crops was initiated in 1982 at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC) initially with 3 Provincial Units: i) Sugarcane Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad (Punjab), ii) Sugar Crops Research Institute, Mardan, (NWFP) and Agricultural Research Institute, Tandojam (Sindh). Later on, research activities of Sugar Crops Research Program were extended to Balochistan, and the 4th Provincial Sugar Crops Research Unit was established at Govt. Seed Farm, Usta Muhammad in 1996. However, no sugar mill was established during that period in Balochistan, and disposal of sugar crops became a serious problem that affected the research activities of the provincial unit on large scale. Therefore, the unit in Balochistan was closed and all research resources were shifted to Quaid-e-Awam Agricultural Research Institute (QAARI), Larkana (Sindh) in 2002. Then, the 5th Provincial Coordinating Unit of Sugar Crops was established at Sugarcane Breeding Station Dargai, (Malakand Agency) in 2002 to cover ecology of northern part of NWFP. Later on, the 6th Provincial Coordinating Unit was established in 2003 at Agricultural Research Institute, D. I. Khan (NWFP) to cover Southern Ecology of NWFP after opening of Chashma Right Bank Canal (CRBC).

Crop Importance

Sugar in Pakistan is manufactured from cane and beet, although cane is the main and overwhelming raw material used. There is about 1 million hectares of land under cane and beet in four provinces: Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), and Baluchistan. Punjab and Sindh, cane-growing areas, contribute with about 90 percent of the total area and production. 

Sugarcane is an important cash crop in many tropical and sub tropical countries accounts for over 2/3 of world sugar production. In Pakistan, sugarcane is an important and high value cash crop. It is mainly grown for sugar and sugar related production. It is an important source of income and employment for the farming community of the country. The sugar industry plays a pivotal role in the national economy of our country. Sugarcane provides sugar, besides bio fuel, fiber, organic fertilizer, chipboard, paper and many other by-products / co-products with ecological sustainability. Its share in value added of agriculture and gross domestic production are 3.7 percent and 0.8 percent, respectively. During 2010-11 season sugarcane was cultivated on an area of 1.241 million hectares, 20.6 percent higher than the previous year. Sugarcane production for the year 2011-12 is estimated at 58.0 million tons in contrast to last year’s production 55.3 million tons. This indicates significant improvement of 16.8 percent over the production of last year.

Sugar beet is grown and processed in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Sugar beet is an important sugar crop in the world. It provides almost 30% of the world sugar for human consumption. Table 8 describes the important beet growing countries and their yield potentials. Sugar beet is also an important cash and sugar crop of Khyber Pakhtoon Khawah (KPK). It is considered to be an alternate sugar crop of the region. The crop has the peculiarity of giving as much yield per acre as that of sugar cane but with 20-25 percent higher recovery just in 7 months crop season. Thus sugar beet ensures higher sugar production per acre per month.

Statistics

Top ten sugarcane producers (2009-FAO)

Country

Production
(Million 
Tons)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/22px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.pngBrazil

672.157

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg/22px-Flag_of_India.svg.pngIndia

285.029

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg/22px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg.pngPeople's Republic of China

116.251

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg/22px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.pngThailand

66.816

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/32/Flag_of_Pakistan.svg/22px-Flag_of_Pakistan.svg.pngPakistan

50.045

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/Flag_of_Mexico.svg/22px-Flag_of_Mexico.svg.pngMexico

49.492

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Flag_of_Colombia.svg/22px-Flag_of_Colombia.svg.pngColombia

38.500

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg/22px-Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg.pngPhilippines

32.500

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/b9/Flag_of_Australia.svg/22px-Flag_of_Australia.svg.pngAustralia

30.284

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1a/Flag_of_Argentina.svg/22px-Flag_of_Argentina.svg.pngArgentina

29.000

World

1,743.068

 

 

Area, production and yield of sugar beet in the world

Country

 

Area

(000 ha)

Production

(000 ton)

Yield

(ton/hectare)

Germany

387

25,919

67.4

France

373

34,913

93.6

UK

140

8,330

59.5

Netherlands

73

5,735

78.6

Italy

61

3,308

54.2

Turkey

324

17,275

53.3

Poland

200

10,849

54.2

Russia

770

24,892

32.3

Ukraine

320

10,068

31.4

World

28,174

19,12,973

67.9

 

Sugarcane Plantation Area, Production Yield and Utilization of Sugarcane by Sugar Mills National

Year

Area
Hectare

Production
Tons

Yield 
Per Hectare

Utilization %age
by Sugar Mills

1990-91

883,800

35,988,700

40.72

62.80

1991-92

879,800

34,204,000

38.90

72.49

1992-93

884,600

38,058,900

43.02

71.66

1993-94

962,800

44,427,000

46.14

76.93

1994-95

1,009,000

47,168,400

46.75

72.49

1995-96

963,100

45,229,700

47.00

62.24

1996-97

964,500

41,998,400

43.54

65.13

1997-98

1,056,200

53,104,200

50.28

77.32

1998-99

1,155,100

55,191,100

47.78

77.90

1999-00

1,009,800

42,000,000

41.59

69.00

2000-01

960,000

43,620,000

45.41

67.47

2001-02

999,700

48,041,000

48.06

76.33

2002-03

1,099,700

52,049,000

47.33

80.28

2003-04

1,074,700

53,800,000

50.00

81.19

2004-05

966,600

43,533,000

45.04

73.74

2005-06

906,980

44,292,000

48.80

67.94

2006-07

1,029,000

54,871,000

53.00

73.78

2007-08

1,241,300

63,920,000

51.49

82.60

2008-09

1,029,400

50,045,400

48.60

66.21

2009-10

942,870

49,372,900

52.36

70.09

2010-11

987,700

55,442,100

56.13

80.47

 

Punjab

Year

Area
Hectare

Production
Tons

Yield 
Per Hectare

Utilization %age
by Sugar Mills

1990-91

525,600

19,633,400

37.35

61.60

1991-92

516,900

18,580,800

35.95

63.21

1992-93

536,100

20,044,800

37.39

67.02

1993-94

596,200

24,510,000

41.11

81.87

1994-95

656,700

28,268,000

43.00

74.20

1995-96

605,600

26,880,000

44.40

63.22

1996-97

604,200

24,010,200

39.74

67.86

1997-98

685,300

32,110,600

46.86

80.67

1998-99

780,300

33,382,800

42.78

78.12

1999-00

672,100

25,000,000

37.20

67.32

2000-01

615,000

26,740,000

43.48

67.57

2001-02

657,000

31,803,000

48.40

79.40

2002-03

735,000

33,169,000

45.12

83.15

2003-04

709,000

34,419,000

49.00

83.10

2004-05

645,000

29,332,000

45.47

77.65

2005-06

625,200

28,949,000

46.30

66.81

2006-07

712,000

37,542,000

53.00

70.85

2007-08

872,200

40,306,000

48.73

81.90

2008-09

666,500

32,294,700

48.50

64.02

2009-10

607,420

31,324,000

51.60

66.95

2010-11

672,200

37,481,000

55.75

74.37

 

Sindh

Year

Area
Hectare

Production
Tons

Yield 
Per Hectare

Utilization %age
by Sugar Mills

1990-91

253,099

12,511,135

49.43

76.71

1991-92

255,280

14,240,476

55.78

83.00

1992-93

248,000

13,556,800

54.66

93.85

1993-94

265,800

15,420,000

58.01

84.51

1994-95

249,700

14,310,300

57.30

84.12

1995-96

254,400

13,737,200

54.00

75.28

1996-97

251,200

13,110,600

52.19

78.68

1997-98

261,600

15,990,600

61.16

86.58

1998-99

270,800

17,050,700

62.96

88.53

1999-00

230,600

12,100,000

51.27

83.99

2000-01

239,000

12,050,000

50.42

87.08

2001-02

241,000

11,416,000

47.37

89.90

2002-03

259,000

13,798,000

53.27

89.98

2003-04

260,000

14,612,000

56.00

88.90

2004-05

215,000

9,357,000

43.52

84.59

2005-06

183,180

11,243,000

61.40

81.67

2006-07

215,000

12,529,000

58.00

92.80

2007-08

308,800

18,793,900

60.86

89.05

2008-09

263,900

13,304,300

50.40

76.28

2009-10

233,950

13,505,400

57.70

85.04

2010-11

226,500

13,900,000

60.43

97.84

 

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Year

Area
Hectare

Production
Tons

Yield 
Per Hectare

Utilization %age
by Sugar Mills

1990-91

104,600

4,516,100

43.17

20.18

1991-92

107,000

4,563,200

42.64

23.97

1992-93

99,900

4,428,400

44.33

25.25

1993-94

100,300

4,470,000

44.57

24.25

1994-95

102,100

4,562,200

44.70

25.86

1995-96

102,500

4,583,000

44.70

17.84

1996-97

08,400

4,841,600

44.66

15.38

1997-98

108,600

4,956,500

45.64

26.30

1998-99

03,300

4,719,500

45.68

38.53

1999-00

06,300

4,900,000

46.10

26.40

2000-01

06,000

4,800,000

45.28

17.64

2001-02

01,000

4,787,000

47.40

26.94

2002-03

05,000

5,049,000

48.08

35.40

2003-04

05,000

4,745,000

45.00

43.53

2004-05

06,000

4,816,000

45.43

29.26

2005-06

98,600

4,100,000

41.60

38.23

2006-07

102,000

4,800,000

47.00

46.98

2007-08

04,800

4,792,000

45.73

62.11

2008-09

98,200

4,408,500

44.09

52.48

2009-10

100,800

4,507,900

44.70

47.77

2010-11

88,400

4,030,300

45.59

75.31

 

Beet Sugar Production, Beet Sliced Sugar Made & Recovery by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Sugar Mills

Year

No of Mills

Beet Sliced Tons

Sugar Made Tons

Recoveries (%)

1990-91

03

282,103

23,312

8.26

1991-92

03

314,758

29,009

9.21

1992-93

03

214,950

18,916

8.80

1993-94

04

242,482

21,933

9.05

1994-95

04

193,595

18,371

9.49

1995-96

03

211,670

20,435

9.65

1996-97

03

166,875

14,610

8.76

1997-98

02

81,794

6,267

7.66

1998-99

03

126,123

10,831

8.59

1999-00

03

187,478

14,618

7.80

2000-01

03

226,252

17,276

7.64

2001-02

03

316,041

29,127

9.23

2002-03

03

222,063

22,066

9.94

2003-04

03

250,171

23,797

9.51

2004-05

02

120,903

11,373

9.41

2005-06

03

93,518

8,934

9.55

2006-07

01

83,580

7,865

9.04

2007-08

01

64,095

5,532

8.80

2008-09

01

9,301

947

10.55

2009-10

02

53,336

4,641

9.15

2010-11

02

151,265

13,535

8.95

 

Problems/Issues/Constraints

  • Only 50-60% area is under approved good quality varieties

  • Control on spread of unapproved and low sugar content varieties (CO-1148 in KPK, SPF-238 in Punjab & Disco in Sindh)

  • Over expansion of sugar industry

  • Defective cane procurement system i.e. mainly through middleman

  • Untimely payments to farmers by sugar mills

  • Weak varietal development program

  • Increase in cost of inputs

  • Non-availability of drought and salt tolerant sugarcane varieties

  • Poor management of ratoon crop

  • Low seed rate

  • Poor land preparation

  • Poor plant protection measures

Solutions Suggested

  • Increase in area under approved good quality varieties

  • Implementation of quality control system and payments on sugar content basis at mill gate

  • Establishment of Sugarcane Breeding Institute at Gharho (near Kitti Bandar, the most suitable location for sugarcane cross breeding in the country) to strengthen sugarcane development program for desired characteristics i.e. high yield, high sugar contents, drought and salt tolerance.

  • Ban on unapproved and low sugar content varieties such as Co-1148, SPF-238, Disco, etc.

  • Production and distribution of quality cane seed of approved varieties is desired by the sugar mills on their own/rented farms.

  • Biological insect-pest control labs should be established by all sugar mills to control pyrilla and borers complex.

  • Press mud sale to the brick kilns should be banned and sold to the farmers only as organic fertilizer

 

OBJECTIVES

Main objective

The overall objective of National Coordinated Research Program is to coordinate research and development activities of sugar crops to improve the sugar crops sector in the country in collaboration with public and private research institutes of the provinces.

Specific objectives

Research

  • To develop sugarcane varieties with characteristics of:

  • High yielding

  • High sugar contents

  • Drought tolerance

  • Cold tolerance

  • Salt tolerance

  • Good ratoonability

  • Resistant to insect pest and diseases

To improve crop-production technology:

  • Planting time & methodology

  • Plant population dynamics

  • Weed management

  • Insect pest and diseases management

  • Balanced fertilizer use

  • Water use efficiency

  • Ratoon crop management

 

CURRENT RESEARCH
Coordination Activities

  • Germplasm acquisition, maintenance, evaluation & distribution to provincial cooperative units

  • Conduct and organize national uniform yield trials

  • Conduct annual traveling seminar

  • Organize annual planning and review meeting

  • Provide variety testing & releasing mechanism

  • Establish linkages with national & international institutions

Varieties Development work

A number of candidate sugarcane varieties are subject to National Uniform Yield Trials annually. Following are the lists of candidate sugarcane varieties evaluated under NUYTs since 2004 onwards

NUYT-2004-2006 (17)

S-98-SP-729                               

 SRI - Faisalabad

CP-89-1945                               

 SRI - Faisalabad

S-97-SP-27                                

 SRI - Faisalabad

CP-82-1172                               

 SRI - Faisalabad

S-96-SP-700                              

 SRI - Faisalabad

S-98-CSSG-668                         

 SSRI - Jhang

S-98-CSSG-676                         

 SSRI - Jhang

S-98-CSSG-567                          

 SSRI - Jhang

CP-80-1827                                

 SCRI - Mardan

CP-87-1628                                

 SCRI - Mardan

MS-91-CP-582                            

 SCRI - Mardan

CP 89-831

 NARC - Islamabad

HOCP-90-491

 NARC - Islamabad

Chandka

QAARI - Larkana

HOTH - 236

NSRI -Thatta

GT-11                                          

ARI -Tandojam

CPF-237

Check

NUYT-2005-2007 (10)

CP-92-1167                               

SRI - Faisalabad

S-96-SP-1215                              

SRI - Faisalabad

S-98-SP-108                               

SRI - Faisalabad

CP-85-1491                                

SRI - Faisalabad

S-2001-US-400                              

SRI - Faisalabad

GT-7                                      

ARI - Tandojam

HoTh - 127

NSCRI - Thatta

HoTh - 326

NSCRI - Thatta

HoTh –-300

NSCRI - Thatta

HSF-240

Check

 

NUYT-2006-2008 (20)

MCP85-1491

SCRI, Mardan

MCP80-1827

SCRI, Mardan

S-2002-US-560

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2002-US-637

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2002-US-640

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2000-CPSG-449

SSRI, Jhang

S-2000-CPSG-1550

SSRI, Jhang

LRK-2003

QAARI, Larkana

LRK-2004

QAARI, Larkana

Ganj Bakhsh

QAARI, Larkana

GT-11

ARI, Tandojam

CPNIA82-223

NIA, Tandojam

CPNIA82-1026 SC-P5

NIA, Tandojam

HoTh-127

NSCRI-Thatta

HoTh-300

NSCRI-Thatta

HoTh-326

NSCRI-Thatta

CPD-01-245

DFSRI, Thatta

CPD-01-354

DFSRI, Thatta

CPD-01-335

DFSRI, Thatta

HSF-240

Check

 

NUYT-2007-2009 (19)

HoTh-348

NSCRI, Thatta

HoTh-2109

NSCRI, Thatta

HoTh-311

NSCRI, Thatta

GT-7

ARI, Tandojam

S-2003-US-718

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2000-US-50

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2003-US-623

SRI, Faisalabad

MCP91-582

SCRI, Mardan

CPD-01-243

DFSRI, Thatta

CPD-01-349

DFSRI, Thatta

CPD-01-346

DFSRI, Thatta

HS-2

Habib Sugar Mills N. Shah

HS-4

Habib Sugar Mills N. Shah

HS-12

Habib Sugar Mills N. Shah

HOSG-529

SSRI, Jhang

HOSG-795

SSRI, Jhang

NSG-59

SSRI, Jhang

HOLRK-3-19

QAARI, Larkana

HSF-242

Check

 

NUYT-2008-2010 (19)

CPHS-17

Habib Sugar Mills, Nawab Shah

HOTH-318

NSCRI, Thatta

HOTH-344

NSCRI, Thatta

HOTH-409

NSCRI, Thatta

CSSG-2476

SSRI, Jhang

CPSG-1663

SSRI, Jhang

QSG-1741

SSRI, Jhang

CSSG-2453

SSRI, Jhang

CSSG-2402

SSRI, Jhang

S-2003-US-127

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2003-US-133

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2003-US-633

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2002-US-160

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2003-US-694

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2003-US-114

SRI, Faisalabad

GT-7

ARI, Tandojam

HOLRK-3-37

QAARI, Larkana

HSF-242

Check

CP-77-400

Check

 

NUYT-2009-2011 (18)

S-2003-US-778

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2003-US-247

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2003-US-165

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2003-US-704

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2002-US-394

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2003-US-824

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2000-HoSG-1607

SSRI, Jhang

S-01-HoSG-129

SSRI, Jhang

S-01-HoSG-315

SSRI, Jhang

S-01-HoSG-3453

SSRI, Jhang

S-01-HoSG-3481

SSRI, Jhang

HS-02

Habib Sugar Mills N. Shah

HS-12

Habib Sugar Mills N. Shah

HoTh-514

NSCRI, Thatta

HoTh-544

NSCRI, Thatta

HoTh-547

NSCRI, Thatta

HSF-240

Check

CP-77-400

Check

 

NUYT-2010-2012 (15)

S-2006-US-641

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2006-SP-18

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2006-US-832

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2006-US-658

SRI, Faisalabad

S-2006-SP-30

SRI, Faisalabad

CPSG-2923

SSRI, Jhang

CPSG-437

SSRI, Jhang

CPSG-25

SSRI, Jhang

CPSG-104

SSRI, Jhang

HOSG-1257

SSRI, Jhang

CPSG-2713

SSRI, Jhang

HoTh-550

NSCRI, Thatta

H0Th-508

NSCRI, Thatta

HSF-242

Check

CP-77-400

Check

 

NUYT-2011-2013 (09)

CPSG-25

SSRI, Jhang

CSSG-239

SSRI, Jhang

CPSG-104

SSRI, Jhang

CSSG-212

SSRI, Jhang

US-469

SRI, Faisalabad

US-272

SRI, Faisalabad

US-54

SRI, Faisalabad

HSF-240

Check

CP-77/400

Check

 

 

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

Sugarcane Production Technology 
Land preparation

Sugarcane is a deep-rooted crop and proper land preparation plays an important role in the development of cane root system, and achieving optimal growth of the crop. Land should be prepared by deep ploughing at least after every two years. The soil should be disked. It is very important that at least 8 to 10 cart loads of well-rotten farmyard manure (FYM) should be applied a month prior to land preparation. Press mud from the sugar industry is another excellent source of organic matter and nutrients. Green manuring may also serve the purpose.

Soil in the prepared field should be friable and well worked so that full germination takes place and later on plants grow without any inhibiting barriers (compact sub-soil layer).

Planting time, method and seed rate

Sugarcane must be planted either in September or in Feb.-March. September planted crop usually produces 25 to 35 % higher yield. Sugarcane should be planted at a row spacing of 100 cm. Three-budded double setts should be placed end to end in the furrows covered with 2 to 3 cm soil layer. About 80 to 100 mounds of thin cane varieties and 100 to 120 mounds of thick varieties is sufficient to plant one acre.

Seed Selection

Use healthy seed of approved varieties of sugarcane. This can increase cane yield from 20 to 25 per cent. Sugarcane varieties recommended for various provinces are given in Table 5.

Recommended Varieties of Sugarcane

Punjab

Early maturing

 

Mid season

SPSG-26, BF-162, CP-43-33, CP-72-2086, CP-77-400, CPF-237, HSF-240, SPF-234, SPF-245, HSF-242 and CPF-243.

BF-129 and SPF-213.

Sindh

Early maturing

Mid season

Ghulabi-95, LRK-2001 and Thatta-10

NIA-2004 and NIA-98

KPK

Early Maturing

Mid season

CPM –13, CO –1321, Mardan-93, JN 88-1, ABID-96 and  Mardan-2005

CP 77-400, MCP-421 and  Mardan-92

 

Seed Treatment

Seed may be treated with hot water at 520 C for 30 minutes and with fungicide. This will help in better germination and the control of many cane diseases.

Fertilizer application

As mentioned earlier fertilizer use in Pakistan is imbalanced, inadequate and improper. Most of the cane growers in the country use only nitrogenous fertilizers while others use an imbalanced combination of N and P. Use of Potash is almost neglected in cane crop. It is very important to use proper doses of balanced fertilizers to exploit the maximum yield potential of cane crop.

All phosphorus and potash and one fourth N should be applied at the time of planting. It is preferable that P and K may be applied in furrows where seed setts are to be placed. Rest of the nitrogenous fertilizer may be applied in three equal splits i.e. during April, May and by mid June to February-March planted crop.

Recommended doses of Fertilizers for Sugarcane

Province

Nutrients (Kg acre-1)

Fertilizer (bags acre-1)

 

N

P2O5

K2O

Urea

DAP

MOP/SOP

Punjab

70-100

50

50-60

2.25-3.50

2.25

1.75-2 / 2-2.5

Sindh

70-110

50

50-70

2.25-4

2.25

2.5-1.75 / 2-3

N.W.F.P

70-90

46

50-60

2.25-3

2

1.75-2 / 2-2.5

It will be beneficial if N is applied in four equal splits to September planted crop besides one fifth applied at planting. In this case it may be applied during March, April, May and June. September planted crop may be given an additional dose of 20 to 40 kg N (one to two bags of urea) per acre.

Weed Management

Good land preparation is a key factor in controlling weeds. For proper weed control, Gesapax Combi (80 WP) may be applied @ 1.4 kg per acre in medium textured soils and @ 1.8 kg per acre in heavy soils in 100 to 120 liters of water. The weedicide should be used with the advice of the technical experts.

Integrated Pest Management for Sugarcane

Insect pests play an important role in reducing the sugarcane yield. The most serious insect pests are sugarcane borers, Pyrilla, and whitefly. In some areas mealy bug, black bug and armyworm are also causing damage.

In Pakistan exact estimates of yield losses due to insect attack are lacking but it has been reported that top borer, stem borer, Gurdaspur borer and Pyrilla cause a reduction in yield from 15-20, 10-20 and 30-35 percent, respectively. In some cases as high as 80-85 percent reduction in crop yield due to insect attack has been reported.

These losses in sugarcane can only be minimized by proper protection of the cane crop from insect pests with scientifically designed IPM Program throughout the year. Pesticides are applied as and when needed in combination with cultural practices, resistant varieties and introduction and conservation of natural enemies. Pesticides will continue to play an important role in the IPM Program. The primary difference, however, is that these products will be used selectively and judiciously.

Farmyard manure should always be used when it is fully rotten. This will reduce termite attack. Trash in the field should not be kept for longer time and it may be burnt. Dry shoots attacked by the bores must be pulled out and burnt. Always cut the crop as close to the ground as possible. Use of light traps will help controlling the spread of borers killing their adults. Earthing up during May-June will help in controlling Gurdaspur borer as the adults will not be able to come out of the ridges of the soil. In case of severe attack of any insect, do not keep the crop as ratoon.

Besides using pesticides/insecticides, insects could also be controlled by biological measures. These control measures are safe for environment, and hazard free. Trichogramma chilonis destroys the eggs of sugarcane borers. Its female lays eggs inside the eggs of borers. Parasitoid larvae feed in the host eggs, destroying them. Epi-pyropes destroy sugarcane pyrilla. These parasitoids are mass multiplied in the laboratory and then released in the cane fields.

Control of diseases

For controlling sugarcane diseases, use healthy and disease-free seed of resistant varieties. Treat the seed with hot water or fungicide/s before planting. Seed may be treated with hot water at 520 C for 30 minutes. The diseased plants from the field should be removed and either buried or burnt. Farmers should avoid keeping ratoon of a certain crop, which have got severe disease attack during first crop season.

Irrigation
It is very important to take care of the irrigation requirements of sugarcane, particularly in summer months. Farmers must plan their acreage to be planted under cane crop according to the available water at their farm. Keep in mind that each field should get at least 16 to 20 irrigations during the crop year adjusting the irrigation schedule according to rainfall in summer.

Irrigation intervals for Sugarcane

March-April

12-14 days

May-June

8-10 days

July-August

10-15 days        (if there is no rainfall, irrigation interval should be 8-10 days)

September-October

15-20 days

November-December

25-30 days

Ratoon crop management

If the ratoon crop is properly managed, it could give higher returns than the plant crop because of savings in certain field operations and inputs. It is important to remember that ratoon crop requires 30 to 40 per cent higher fertilizers than the plant crop. The end of January to beginning of March is the best time to keep the crop for ratooning. Cane from the fields to be kept for ratoon should be cut at ground level.

The sugar recovery in ratoon crop is also better and it matures earlier than the plant crop. However, remember that it has to be managed with extra efforts and care. Apply all the phosphorus and potash fertilizer plus one third of N during March. Plough the land in between the furrows to mix the fertilizer well in the soil and then irrigate the crop. Fill the gaps; control the weeds, insect pests and diseases properly. Rest of the nitrogenous fertilizer should be applied in two equal splits during April and May.

Harvesting

Stop irrigation 25 to 30 days before the harvest of crop and do not leave the harvested crop for long in the field. In case it has to be kept for a prolonged period, it should be covered with trash. Different varieties planted may be harvested according to their maturity. Harvesting of early maturing varieties may be started during November, mid season varieties during December and the late maturing varieties during January. The crop harvested during February-March gives good ratoon crop.

SUGAR BEET PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

Time of Planting

The best planting time of sugar beet is from mid to end of the October for Leiah, Bhakkar and Dera Ismail Khan Regions. October sowing gives higher beet and sugar yields. If a farmer completes beet sowing in this period, he can get the maximum yield and ultimately highest profit. Planting in November gives lower beet root yield as well as sugar yield compared to October planted crop.

Selection of Variety

Varieties with higher beet root yield, sugar yield and particularly more disease resistant should be selected very carefully as it has a great economic impact on both farmer plus millers.   

Seed Bed Preparation

Cultivate the land properly, i.e. 2 times with cultivator and 1 deep plough (up to 15 inches). So that no more clots are present in the soil. The soil should not be more powdery too. If soil is clottier then seed may remain bare and that will result in poor germination. On the other hand powdery soil may become compact and allow less seed germination. Soil should be porous and level so that water travels smoothly in the field.

Planting Method

Single row top seeding at 45 cm gives higher yield, due mostly to the higher plant population. With this method we can easily re-sow the seed and maintain the required plant population as well as harvesting is easy. Use of beet planter saves time, labor and gives higher economic efficiency over manual sowing. 

Seed Rate

Less seed rate results in lower plant population ultimately reduces the yield. So farmers must use 1-1.5 kg seed/acre in order to achieve recommended plant population and maximum beet yield.

Seed Depth

Seed depth should be appropriate i.e. not more than 1 inch. This is because if seed is deeper then seed cannot germinate and there is a need to re-sow the seed. Alternatively if seed remains naked it cannot germinate and hence affect plant population. So in this case we should place the seed very carefully to avoid any type of loss or failure.    

Row to Row Distance

Row to row distance depends upon the sowing method. If sowing is on top of the ridges then ridges should be narrow (45 cm) so that we can maintain the plant population. With regarding double row method, row to row space should be 75 cm. However, single row with top seeding at 45 cm gives higher yield.

Ridge planting

Besides flat sowing method ridge plant is also an alternate technique. If seed bed is properly prepared and ridges are of equal height and leveled, then farmer can achieve better seed germination and better beet root formation. Sugar beet may be dibbled on top or both sides of the ridges depending upon ridge to ridge distance (45 or 75 cm).

Single row planting: Planting will be done as a single row on the ridges if ridge to ridge distance is 45 cm apart.

Double row planting: Planting will be done as a double row on both sides of the ridges if ridge to ridge distance is 75 cm apart.

Plant to Plant Distance

Plant to plant distance must be maintained up to 6-7 inches so that we can retain 40,000 plus plants. If this distance is not maintained properly then it will affect the plant’s vegetative growth as well as root size.

Plant Population

Plant population is the single most dominant factor affecting yield of beet roots. In order to maintain the plant population check out the germination, if it is more than 80% then there is no need to re-sowing or transplanting. But if it is less than required then re-sow the seed or transplant the plants from thick area. The ideal plant density is 87,500 to 100,000 per hectare.

Thinning and Transplanting

Thinning is done in order to maintain the proper plant to plant distance so that plant growth is vigorous and root size will be appropriate (1-1.5Kg/plant). It must be done when germination is completed. The gaps should also be filled at proper time i.e. right after 30-40 days of germination. In this regard we can transplant thinned out plants in gaps to avoid re-sowing.   

Weeding and Hoeing

Weeding and hoeing must be done at right time i.e. when vegetative growth is at peak and at the time of root formation. It also depends on the field condition, farmer can visually observe the field to decide whether there is a need to eradicate the weeds or not. Poor and untimely weeding can affected the growth of crop and reduce yield.

Control of Weeds by Herbicides

There are very limited herbicides available in the market regarding beet crop. The experiments show that, the herbicide “Dual Gold” has given good results in controlling weeds. It is a pre emergence herbicide and can be applied by tow different methods i.e. spray and flooded method. It has been observed that flooding method is more effective and gives better results over spraying method. Spraying method effects the germination and intends crop into stress. The herbicide “Relax” appears to have depressed yield.

Control of Pest/Diseases

Most common diseases of this crop are Rhizomania, Cercospora leaf spot, Powdery Mildew and Downy Mildew. Rhizomania is a viral disease while other three are fungal and bacterial diseases. Army worm is a major pest of sugar beet in area. If a crops is affected be any disease or insect pest, it nust be properly diagnosed first. If the damage by the pest or disease is up to threshold level and there is a threat that it can damage the crop severely then apply the pesticide/fungicide immediately. If pest or disease is not controlled then increase the dosage or change the chemical.

Optimum Dose and Time of Fertilization

The experiments proved that the optimum dose of fertilizer for sugar beet crop NPK is Nitrogen @ 120 kg/ha, phosphorus (P2O5) @ 100 kg/ha and potash (K2O) @ 62.5 kg/ha. Phosphorus is a slow releasing fertilizer so it should be applied as basal dose with last cultivation so that it must be mixed in the soil properly. Nitrogen fertilizer can be applied in 3-4 split doses and it must be completed within three months after germination. In sandy soils Zinc and other micronutrients application would also benefit the crop in terms of yield, sugar recovery and disease resistance.  

Irrigation

First irrigation after sowing is very critical, because if field is over irrigated, it may compact the soil and seed germination will be effected. So water should remain beneath the seed to moist it only. If irrigation is applied at right time, the crop growth is more vigorous, root formation is good and ultimately crop results a better yield. Farmers must be careful in irrigation prospective throughout the season especially at vegetative stage and root growth. Sugar beet is 6-7 months crop so it needs 8-10 irrigations. If soil is clayey then irrigation should be stopped 30-40 days before harvesting because this type of soil have more water holding capacity and crop does not face any stress. In other case if soil is sandy then irrigation may be stopped 10-20 days before harvesting because sandy soil has lesser water holding capacity and crop may goes into water stress. If irrigation is not stopped before harvesting, it will cause in lesser yield as well as immature crop.

Harvesting Method

Beet crop can be harvested manually as well as mechanically. In Pakistan no specific and advanced beet harvesters are available. Most of the harvesting is done manually and some areas it is done with tractor. It has been observed that harvesting with tractor damages the beet roots and is uneconomical.

Optimum Harvesting Time

When the leaves of the crop are yellowish green and reduce in size, now it is the sign that crop is mature and ready to harvest. The best harvesting time is the month of May in the region of Laeiah, Bhakkar and Dera Ismael Khan. The research indicates that higher root and sugar yields are obtained from the crop harvested in the month of May.  

Post Harvest Staling Losses

Post harvest staling is the most critical issue in beet harvesting. Both the growers and millers suffer from these losses. The data evidenced that weight losses in beet are 5, 10, 14 and 18 % on 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th day after harvesting respectively. Sugar recovery loss is recorded to the tune of 1.1, 2.4, 5.6 and 8.4 % respectively for the corresponding periods. It is recommended that beet should be transported and sliced within 24 hours of harvesting in the month of May. Losses may considerably be reduced by storing the beet under certain covers.

Seed Production of NARS Varieties

Seed of varieties developed and released for commercial cultivation is produced, multiplied and marked by respective research institutes in collaboration of local sugar mills of the respective areas.

 

ACHIEVEMENTS

Varieties Developed with Main Features

Following commercial sugarcane varieties have been developed and released through National Agricultural Research System (NARS) and Coordinated Sugar Crops Research Program of the PARC

For Punjab

S. No.

Name of variety

Name of Institute

Year of Release

Maturity

Cane Yield

(t ha-1)

Sugar recovery (%)

1.                           

BF-162

AARI, Fsd.

1990

Early

100

10.5

2.                   

SPSG-26

SRI, Jhang

1991

Early

100

10.2

3.                   

BF-129

AARI, Fsd.

1996

Mid

100

9.8

4.                   

CP-43-33

AARI, Fsd.

1996

Early

90

10.8

5.                   

CP-72-2086

AARI, Fsd.

1996

Early

90

12.0

6.                   

CP-77-400

AARI, Fsd.

1996

Early

100

12.7

7.                   

CPF-237

AARI, Fsd.

2000

Early

95

12.5

8.                   

SPF-213

AARI, Fsd.

2000

Mid

100

11.0

9.                   

HSF-240

AARI, Fsd.

2002

Early

130

12.5

10.               

SPF-234

AARI, Fsd.

2002

Early

100

11.6

11.               

SPF-245

AARI, Fsd.

2004

Early

100

11.0

12.               

HSF-242

AARI, Fsd.

2006

Early

108

12.4

13.               

CPF-243

AARI, Fsd.

2006

Early

102

12.7

14.               

NSG-555

SRI, Jhang

2008

Mid

 

 

15.               

NSG-311

SRI, Jhang

2008

Mid

 

 

16.               

CPF-246

AARI, Fsd

2010

Early

 

 

 

For Sindh

S. No.

Name of variety

Name of Institute

Year of Release

Maturity

Cane Yield

(t ha-1)

Sugar recovery (%)

17.                 

Ghulabi-95

ARI, Tandojam

1996

Early

200

10.7

18.                 

NIA-98

NIA, Tandojam

1998

Mid

180

10.5

19.                 

Thatta-10

NSCRI, Thatta

2004

Early

180

11.0

20.                 

NIA-2004

NIA, Tandojam

2004

Mid

170

9.5

21.                 

LRK-2001

QAARI, Larkan

2005

Early

200

11.0

 

For KPK

S. No.

Name of variety

Name of Institute

Year of Release

Maturity

Cane Yield

(t ha-1)

Sugar recovery (%)

22.                 

CPM-13

SCRI, Mardan

1989

Early

70

12.5

23.                 

CO-1321

SCRI, Mardan

1989

Early

70

12.0

24.                 

Mardan -92

SCRI, Mardan

1992

Mid

100

12.0

25.                 

Mardan -93

SCRI, Mardan

1993

Early

100

12.5

26.                 

CP-77-400

SCRI, Mardan

1996

Mid

80

12.7

27.                 

Jn-88/1

SBS, Dargai

1996

Early

70

12.7

28.                 

Abid-96

SBS, Dargai

1996

Early

70

12.5

29.                 

SN-98

SCRI, Mardan

1998

Early

72

12.2

30.                 

MCP-421

SCRI, Mardan

2003

Mid

80

12.5

31.                 

Mardan-2005

SCRI, Mardan

2005

Early

90

12.2

32.                 

KB-2010

ARS, Bannu

2010

Early

 

 

 

Production Technologies Developed

  • Tested pressmud (sugar industry waste) utility as organic fertilizer for sugarcane. Best fertilizers rate was N= 105, P2O5= 63 and Potash = 68 kg ha-1 with pressmud = 10 ton ha-1. Sugarcane yield increased up to 40 % over the farmers practice already performed in the area.

  • Tested deficient micronutrient usage for enhancing sugarcane yield. Best fertilizer rate was N= 210, P2O= 125, Potash = 135, Zinc = 7.5 and Boron = 1.5 kg ha-1.  Yield increase was up to 22%.

  • Introduced/selected two sugar beet hybrids (Entik, Esteban). These varieties increased beet yield from 300 mounds to 500 mounds and sugar recovery 1.6-2.0% more than the previous varieties. Cultivation of these hybrids has increased area under sugar beet from 700 acres (2007-8) to 9000 acres (2011-12) in Al-Moiz Sugar Mills area (D. I. Khan, Bhakkar, Layyah and Mianwali).

  • Developed sugar beet planter for mechanized sugar beet planting. It increased sugar beet planting efficiency to 10 acres per day compared to 10 men/acre/day.

  • Chinese plastic mulching technology in sugarcane was introduced. Tested benefits of this technology are as under.

            o    15-25% high sugarcane germination,

            o    Moisture conservation for 80-90 days (saving up to 4 irrigations)

            o    Weed control up to 80%

  • Keeping salts below the roots and increase in fertilizer uptake efficiency.

Germplasm Acquired/Distributed to date

A large number of germplasm lines have been acquired and distributed to various research institutes since the beginning of the program.

Sugarcane Germplasm Lines Distributed to Various Organizations

Name of Institutes/Stations

Quantity Distributed

Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam (Sindh)

300

Sugarcane Research Institute, Faisalabad.

460

Sugar Crops Research Institute, Mardan.

360

Sugarcane Research Station, Sujawal.

287

National Sugar Crops Research Institute, Thatta.

375

Fauji Foundation Sugar Mills Nucherji Farm Sindh.

353

Sindh Sugar Corporation Karachi.

211

WFP Agricultural University, Peshawar.

164

Agricultural Research Institute Sariab, Quetta.

250

Habib Farm Habib Sugar Mills Nawabshah Shah, Sindh.

120

Tandlianwala Sugar Mills Kanjawani, Tandlianwala, Faisalabad.

55

Layyah Sugar Mills Layyah

67

Agricultural Research Institute, D.I. Khan

50

Shahtaj Sugar Mills, Mandi Baha-ud-Din

50

Phalia Sugar Mills, Mandi Baha-ud-Din

50

Shakkarganj Sugar Mills, Jhang

30

Total:

3182

 

HR Development

Muhammad Asad Farooq

M.Sc. (Hons.) Agriculture in Plant Pathology

Thesis Title: Investigations on Sugarcane Mosaic Virus in Punjab and NWFP: Characterization and Identification of Resistance Sources.

 

CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS

Pak-China Cooperation for Agricultural Research and Development: Component-IV (Enhancing sugarcane productivity in Pakistan through research and development activities)

Objectives

  • Acquisition of sugarcane fuzz/germplasm from china

  • Develop high yielding, early maturing sugarcane varieties having tolerance against biotic and a biotic stresses, capable of producing products of economic importance at lower cost than could be attained from the existing commercial varieties. 

  • Seed multiplication and distribution among farmers of elite sugarcane commercial varieties.

  • Testing and introduction of newly developed technologies for improving sugarcane yield and quality.

Current activities:

  • Testing/multiplication of sugarcane germplasm acquired from China.

  • Plastic mulching experiments in sugarcane.

  • Seed multiplication and distribution among farmers of elite sugarcane commercial varieties.

Expected output:

  • Selection of cane varieties having resistance against biotic and a-biotic stresses, high yield and sucrose contents will be accomplished. 

  • Release of more new cane varieties will improve capability of producing sugar and other products of economic importance at lower cost than could be attained from existing commercial varieties.

  • Improvement in cane growers’ economic condition by increasing productivity per unit area. The economic gains will improve the living standards of the growers.

  • It will help in running Pakistan sugar industry with full capacity and become competitive with other sugar producing countries in the world.

  • The existing sugar production trends of 3.0 – 4.0 million tonnes sugar are likely to enhance to the level of 5.0 – 6.0 million tonnes sugar.

Cost: Rs. 31.185 Million

Duration: 5 years (July, 2009 – June, 2014)

Name of PI/Co-PI: Dr. Muhammad Zubair, PSO/Coordinator (Sugar Crops)

 

PUBLICATIONS

 

SCIENTIFIC STAFF 

Sr. #

Name

Designation

E-mail

01.

Dr. Muhammad Zubair

CSO/PL

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02.

Dr. Sagheer Ahmed

SSO  

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03.

Mr. Muhammad Asad Farooq

SO

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Resource Person:

Dr. Muhammad Zubair

CSO/ Coordinator (Sugar Crops)

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