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Plant Genetic Resources

Plant Genetic Resources

 

What are the plant genetic resources and what's their importance?
Ans.
The plant genetic resources are the vital component of plant bio-diversity, precious heritage of mankind, therefore need to be collected and conserved before they are lost forever. Plant genetic resources consist of genotypes or population of land races, advanced cultivars, genetic stocks, wild and weedy species which are maintained in the form of seeds, plants, tissues etc. The great wealth of genetic diversity existing in these gene-pools holds vast potential for current and future use for the benefit of mankind. These genetic resources have a part to play in the future improvement of economically important plant species. Their importance is due to use in breeding programmes, crop improvement, developing new varieties resistant to biotic and a-biotic stresses, as they are drought /insect/pest/disease tolerant and resistant to biotic/ a-biotic stresses.

PARC has undertaken how much collection, characterization and evaluation of germplasm?
Ans.
The germplasm is collected through various expeditions from different parts of agro-ecological zones of Pakistan and also acquired from national and international institutes. The following is the detail of germplasm collected, characterized and evaluated from various sources:
         a.  Genebank Status of PGR, NARC

S. No.

Crops

Total

 

  

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

 Cereals:

Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
Durum wheat (Triticum durum)
Wheat (Wild species)
Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
Oats (Avena sativa/fatua)
Rice (Oryza sativa)
Maize (Zea mays)
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
Millets (Pennisetum glaucum)/related spp.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum )esculentum

2767
207
130
1274
540
2957
545
866
1007
   19

10312

 

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Food Legumes:

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)
Chickpea (wild cicer)
Lentil (Lens culinaris)/its wild relatives
Mungbean (Vigna radiata)
Mashbean (Vigna mungo)
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)
Lobia (Phaseolus vulgaris)
Vicia species
Moth (Vigna acontifolia)
Matri (Lathyrus speceis)

2243
90
808
643
799
212
109
172
66
148

5290

 

21
22
23
24
25
26

 Oilseeds

Oilseed brassica
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)
Soybean (Glycine max)
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
Safflower  (Carthamus Tinctorius)
Sesame

 1003
754
133
143
362
73

2468

     

27
28
29
30
31

Others:

Fodder & Forages
Fibre Crops
Vegetables
Fruits
Medicinal Plants

341
357
1481
1024
1778

 4981

 

 

 

 

G.Total

 

23051

         b.   Germplasm Characterization/Evaluation

Common Name

Accessions

Traits Studied

Barley

933

12

Buck wheat

19

5

Chickpea

1004

14

Cowpea

335

27

Durum wheat

192

21

Lentil

423

8

Maize

428

13

Mash

1385

18

Millets

194

20

Mung

1130

17

Okra

34

33

Peas

573

23

Radish

47

23

Rapeseed/Mustard

121

15

Rice

1249

14

Sorghum

899

18

Soybean

212

20

Swank

50

5

Tomato

70

20

Vigna spp.

150

20

Wheat

2042

21

 

         c.  Biochemical/Molecular Evaluation

Common Name

Accessions

Technique used

Wheat

490

SDS-PAGE, 2-D Protein Analysis

Buck wheat

19

SDS-PAGE

Chickpea

10

Isozyme

Cotton

13

Isozyme

Cowpea

138

SDS-PAGE

Lentil

166

SDS-PAGE, Isozyme, RAPD

Mash

321

SDS-PAGE, 2-D Protein Analysis

Matri

12

SDS-PAGE

Medicagospp.

168

SDS-PAGE

Okra

39

SDS-PAGE

Peanut

151

SDS-PAGE

Peas

268

SDS-PAGE, RAPD

Rice

150

SDS-PAGE, RAPD, SSR

Soybean

161

SDS-PAGE

Vetch

12

SDS-PAGE

Vigna spp.

300

SDS-PAGE

Wild wheat

42

SDS-PAGE

Oilseed/Mustard

175

SDS-PAGE

Kalongi

32

SDS-PAGE, RAPD

 
 

What types of germplasm are available for scientists/ farmers and how they can benefit from them?
Ans.
The germplasm of major cereals, minor cereals, food legumes, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, fiber crops, fodder & forages and medicinal plants is available for scientists and researcher for the development of new varieties. These varieties will be eventually used by farmers. The farmers will definitely benefit from newly developed varieties having better traits or genes selected from conserved plant genetic resources in gene bank.

What is the significance of medicinal plants?
Ans. There are about 6000 plant species in Pakistan; out of these only 1010 species are identified as having medicinal value. Medicinal plants, on the basis of their utility, are broadly classified as those used in healthcare system, species and aromatic plants. Medicinal plants and herbs, since ages, remained a necessary part of healthcare system throughout the world. With the technological advancement, use of synthetic drugs got a widespread acceptability, but still a large population of Pakistan and the World at large depends upon medicinal plants because of their minimum side effects and cost effectiveness.

What is the level/range of economic benefits for farmers in cultivation of medicinal plants?
Ans.
Despite fluctuating market prices of herbs and their products farmers can get a handful income by cultivating medicinal plants. An economic assessment of five years farmers field trials on medicinal plants indicates that net income per acre from cultivation of Nigella sativa (Kalongi), Trachyspermum amni (Ajwain desi), Lallemantia soyleana (Tukham-e-balangoo), Plantago ovata (Ispaghol) and Foeniculum vulgare (Saunf) were in the range of Rs. 17,500; Rs. 13,300; Rs. 16,000; Rs. 14,500 and Rs. 16,800 respectively.

Resource Person

Mr. Abdul Qayyum (SSO)

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